It is the method in which use of earthworms is done to convert organic waste into fertilizer. Use of organic manure increases organic level of soil and number of bacteria’s. To maintain the fertility level of the soil, use carbonic/natural manure. Natural manure includes cow dung, compost and green manure which provides essential component to the plants and increases yield. It is increases moisture content in the soil. Prevention of pest, diseases and weed is done through use of organic material. During rotting organic manure leaves carbonic content which lowers the pH of soil from 7.
If suitable temperature and moisture manure elements are there then earthworms are ready for sexual reproduction within 4 weeks. Adult earthworms gives 2-3 cocoons per week and in single cocoon there is 3-4 eggs. In this way the breeders cocoon produces approximately 250 cocoons in 6 months.
The major varieties of vermicompost earthworms are:
- Eisenia fetida
- Eudrilus eugeniae
- Perionyx excavatus
Use of vermicompost:-
- Use 2-3tonnes/acre of vermicompost in commercial crops.
- In vegetables, use 1-2tonnes/acre of vermicompost.
- In gardens, use 20kg/plant of vermicompost.
- For pots use 500gm of vermicompost.
- Vermicompost is also used as mulch.
Method of preparing vermicompost:-
Construction of beds is done having width of 1.0-1.5m and height of 0.25-0.2m. Beds are constructed in an open shed from all sides so that it is protected from sun rays, summers and rainy season. Firstly the base layer of sandy soil is added, then above this 3-4 layers of mustard or wheat straw is added and is moistened. Then next, 8-10 layers of carbonic component such as cowdung layer, waste of leaves or vegetable is added. Then add earthworms @1kg/m2. To moisten the soil, spraying with water is done. In summers, spraying is done 2-3 times and in winter spraying is done only 1 time in a day. Cover the bed with sack or leaves because earthworms work in dark. Vermicompost gets ready in 2-3 months. 2-3kg earthworms prepare 8qtl vermicompost. After preparation of vermicompost, stop water spraying and start collecting the compost. So when the compost is dry, the earthworms go down to the lower surface and when the composting material is kept then the earthworms come up and start their work.
- A Plastic tub made of HDPE material.
- The green mesh.
- 10-15litre capacity pot for vermiwash collection.
- Small tooth harrow for mixing the solution.
- 2mm tap to filter out the organic fertilizer.
- 30 kg of sack or jute bag to store organic manure.
- Cow or buffalo dung.
To prepare the compost we require 11x4x2 foot of plastic tubs. This tub is made up of HDPE and is also known as readymade bed. It is green in color and the inner lining is made up of thermocol sheet which prevents it from outer heat. Due to HDPE material it is resistant to water, cold, heat, sunlight effect. As it is a plastic it catches fire easily so proper care should be taken. This plastic tub has lattice on either side which works as air supplier and during high rainfall when the water level in the plastic tub increases then with the help of lattice the extra water will drain out. Add worms by spreading them on the tub. The readymade bed/tub should be kept in shade as worms filled in the bed can’t tolerate heat and can die.
After that the tub is first filled with 5-10 kg of neem leaves and animal straw at the bottom and then it is filled with 12-14 quintals cow dung.
Sprinkle the water for atleast 2-3 days and after three days add more 2-3kg of earthworms and cover the plastic tub with green mesh. The compost is ready in 60-80 days. Check the material after 2-3 days in the plastic tub.
Extraction of Vermiwash:-
After 15-20 days extraction of vermiwash gets started. The vermiwash is collected in a plastic container or mud-pot which is studded in the soil near the filter pipe. Drop by drop vermiwash is collected in the container. When it is fully filled with vermiwash than change the container and studded another one container on same place. It has no expiry date. It can be stored for longer time. Collected vermiwash is preserved and later use as spray in the field to prevent the crops from pests and diseases.
- Use of 100-200gm of organic manure per flowering pot enhances the beauty and brightness of flower.
- Use of 1-2 kg of organic manure in vegetable beds having 2x5 meter dimensions will enhances the soil quality and vegetables become nutritionally rich.
- 5-10 quintals per acre of organic manure is spread in field.
- An organic fertilizer is very essential for soil erosion as it maintains the moisture of soil for long duration.
- Organic fertilizer improves soil fertility by maintaining the quantity of major Nutrient (N, P, K etc.) and micro nutrient (Ca, Mg, Fe, Br, etc.).
- It not only enhances the fertility of soil but also prevent crop from the harmful diseases.
Benefits of vermicompost:-
Benefits of Vermicompost:-
- Vermicompost contains all the essential components which are required by plants for proper growth.
- Vermicompost produce oxygen, Gibberellins, cytokines, vitamins, amino acids and other essential bio-active substances in plants which are essential for balanced and proper growth of plant.
- Vermicompost absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and use it for land irrigation. It also prevents evaporation which can occur due to leaching. Therefore, vermicompost prevents frequent watering to the crops.
- Actinomycetes antibiotic secreted by vermicompost protect plants from harmful insects which cause damage.
- Moisture present in compost is not promptly loss by evaporation therefore soil moisture retains in soil for long duration.
- Vermicompost prevent soil erosion and reduces weeds as compare to other manure or compost.
- By use of vermicompost maintain the physical properties such as land, watering capacity, soil composition, moderate-temperature and chemical properties of elements such as carbon and nitrogen that balance the proportion of organic matter for long time. It also balances the biological properties which improve nitrogen fixation, polymers, etc. which are essential for soil fertility.
- By use of vermicompost the temperature, moisture and pH of soil remain in control.
- Use of vermicompost improves quality of agricultural products. As a result, it increases storage capacity and gives high quality yield which will help in earning huge income.
Farming through organic ways:-
to increase soil fertility, take fresh material. By taking higher crop yield the soil fertility gets decreased; to maximize the soil fertility, do soil treatment. Use this after every irrigation and every seed sowing, by this way land becomes stronger, gives good yield and gives prevention from disease and pest.
- Cowdung (cow, buffalo, bull) @40kg
- Lassi @8ltr
- Urine (cow, buffalo, bull) @40ltr
- Milk @2ltr
- Butter/ mustard oil @500gm
- Gram flour and fenugreek @500gm
- Old jaggery@2kg and old rotten bananas@1kg
- Mustard cake@2kg
Add all the material in the drum; mix this material 30times clockwise and 30times anti-clockwise with stick for 7 days. Cover the drum with a cloth, after 15 days when mixture is ready. After the mixture is ready add equal amount of water in it. Add sand or vermicompost or ash in the field before sowing and at the irrigation time.
For seed treatment:-
By doing natural seed treatment will increase seed germination. From which better yield is obtained.
Seed treatment injection: Use this way before 1 hour of sowing. Take 10 parts of lassi or vermiwash or cow’s urine or milk and mix 1 part of old jaggery or honey. Like for 1 acre wheat requires 40kg seeds, so 2ltr lassi and 200gm jaggery is enough. Placenta manure (plant according to 15gm /acre and mix 5gm jaggery or honey). Put placenta in the sandpot and place the pot in the sand. The manure gets ready in 60-70 days.
Plant/ crop yield
At the time of growth plant requires various essential minerals.
This material is obtained by plant from land or can be obtained by spraying on leaves. Spray material (use any one) i.e. fresh cow’s urine or sandpot manure or vermiwash @1ltr and put it in 14ltr water and then use it for spraying.