General information:-It is one of the most important pulse crops of India. It is rich source of protein and phosphoric acid. It is used as dal and it is important ingredient of breakfast. In India, major mash areas are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In Punjab, it is cultivated on 2.2 thousand hectares (2012-13).
Saline - alkaline soil, also waterlogged soils are not suitable for mash cultivation. For good growth, it required stiff loamy or heavy soils with good water retentive capacity.
Popular varities with their yield:-
Mash 338: Suitable for Kharif sowing. Dwarf and short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 90 days. Each pod contains bold and black 6-7 seeds. It is resistant to mosaic virus and leaf spot. Gives average yield of 3.5 qtl/acre.
Mash 114: Suitable for Kharif sowing. Dwarf and short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 85 days. Each pod contains bold and black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 3.7qtl/acre.
Mash 218: Suitable for summer sowing. Short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 76 days. Each pod contains bold, dull black 6 seeds. Gives average yield of 4 qtl/acre.
Mash 414: Suitable for summer sowing. Short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 73 days. Each pod contains bold, black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 4.3 qtl/acre.
Mash 1008: Suitable for summer sowing. Ready to harvest in 73 days. It is fairly resistant to mosaic virus and leaf spot. Each pod contains bold, black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 4.6 qtl/acre.
Other state varieties:
To bring soil to fine tilth give two to three ploughing. After each ploughing carry out planking. Keep field weed free.
Time of sowing
Optimum time for kharif sowing is last week of June to first week of July. Optimum time for summer cultivation is from March to April. For sub-mountainous region, complete sowing from 15-25 July.
Use row spacing of 30 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm for Kharif sowing. For Rabi sowing use row spacing of 22.5 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-5 cm.
Sow seeds at depth of 4-6 cm. Mash grown in hilly areas are of better quality.
Method of sowing
For sowing use Kera or Pora method or sow seeds by seed drill.
For kharif sowing use seed rate of 7-8kg/acre whereas for summer sowing use seed rate of 19-20kg/acre of bold seeds.
Before sowing treat seeds with Captan or Thiram or Mancozeb or Carbendazim@2.5gm per kg of seeds. After then dry them in shades. After chemical treatment treat seed with Rhizobium@2gm/kg of seeds.
Use any one fungicides from below
Fungicide/Insecticide name Quantity (Dosage per Kg seed)
Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTSH ZINC
11 60 # #
Nutirent Requirement (kg/acre)
NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
5 10 #
At time of sowing, apply Nitrogen@5kg in form of Urea@11kg per acre and Phosphorus@10kg in form of SSP@60kg/acre.
To keep field weed free, one or two hoeing are required. Take first hoeing one month after sowing. To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin@1Ltr/acre in 100-200Ltrs of water.
Mash is grown as a kharif crop. If needed provide irrigation depending upon the climatic conditions.
Diseases and their control:-
Yellow mosaic virus: It is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves. Pods not developed on infected plants.
Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties. For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40gm, Triazophos@ 600ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.
Cercospora leaf spot: As a preventive measure, do seed treatment with Captan and Thiram. Use cercospora leaf spot resistant variety. If infestation is observed take spray of Zineb 75WP@400gm/acre. Take two to three sprays at interval of 10days.
Pest and their control:-
Sucking pest (Jassid, aphid, white fly): If infestation is observed, take spray of Malathion@375ml or Dimethoate@250ml or Oxydemeton Methyl@250ml/acre.
For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40gm Triazophos@600ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.
Tobacco caterpillar: If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate 57SP@800gm/acre or Chlorpyriphos 20EC@ 1.5Ltr/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.
Hairy Caterpillar: To control hairy caterpillar pick caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when infestation is low. In case of high infestation, take spray of Quinalphos@500ml or Dichlorvos@200ml/acre.
Pod Borer: Serious pest cause heavy loss in yield. If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200ml or Acephate 75SP@800gm or Spinosad 45SC@60ml/acre. Repeat spray after two weeks.
Mite: If infestation is observed take spray of Dimethoate 30EC@150ml/acre.Mite: If infestation is observed take spray of Dimethoate 30EC@150ml/acre.
Blister beetle: They cause damage at flowering stage. They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.
If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200ml or Acephate 75SC@800gm/acre. Carry out spraying in evening hours and if necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.
Best time for harvesting of mash is when leaves are shed and pods become greyish black. Cut crop with sickle and then spread harvested crop on floor to dry. Then threshing is done and seeds are separated from pods.
.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare