5227idea99black_gram_(urad)

General information:-It is one of the most important pulse crops of India. It is rich source of protein and phosphoric acid. It is used as dal and it is important ingredient of breakfast. In India, major mash areas are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In Punjab, it is cultivated on 2.2 thousand hectares (2012-13).

Climate:-

Season
Temperature
15-30°C
Season
Rainfall
50-75cm
Season
Sowing Temperature
25-35°C
Season
Harvesting Temperature
18-25°C

Soil:-

Saline - alkaline soil, also waterlogged soils are not suitable for mash cultivation. For good growth, it required stiff loamy or heavy soils with good water retentive capacity.

Popular varities with their yield:-

Mash 338: Suitable for Kharif sowing. Dwarf and short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 90 days. Each pod contains bold and black 6-7 seeds. It is resistant to mosaic virus and leaf spot. Gives average yield of 3.5 qtl/acre.

Mash 114: Suitable for Kharif sowing. Dwarf and short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 85 days. Each pod contains bold and black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 3.7qtl/acre.

Mash 218: Suitable for summer sowing. Short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 76 days. Each pod contains bold, dull black 6 seeds. Gives average yield of 4 qtl/acre.

Mash 414: Suitable for summer sowing. Short duration variety. Ready to harvest in 73 days. Each pod contains bold, black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 4.3 qtl/acre.

Mash 1008: Suitable for summer sowing. Ready to harvest in 73 days. It is fairly resistant to mosaic virus and leaf spot. Each pod contains bold, black 6-7 seeds. Gives average yield of 4.6 qtl/acre.

Other state varieties:
Type 27
Type 56
Pusa 1
Pant 430
HPU 6
T 65
LBG 22
LBG 402
LBG 20

Land preparation:-

To bring soil to fine tilth give two to three ploughing. After each ploughing carry out planking. Keep field weed free.

Sowing:-

Time of sowing
Optimum time for kharif sowing is last week of June to first week of July. Optimum time for summer cultivation is from March to April. For sub-mountainous region, complete sowing from 15-25 July.

Spacing
Use row spacing of 30 cm and plant to plant spacing of 10 cm for Kharif sowing. For Rabi sowing use row spacing of 22.5 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-5 cm.

Sowing Depth
Sow seeds at depth of 4-6 cm. Mash grown in hilly areas are of better quality.

Method of sowing
For sowing use Kera or Pora method or sow seeds by seed drill.

Seed:-

Seed Rate
For kharif sowing use seed rate of 7-8kg/acre whereas for summer sowing use seed rate of 19-20kg/acre of bold seeds.

Seed Treatment
Before sowing treat seeds with Captan or Thiram or Mancozeb or [email protected] per kg of seeds. After then dry them in shades. After chemical treatment treat seed with [email protected]/kg of seeds.

Use any one fungicides from below

Fungicide/Insecticide name Quantity (Dosage per Kg seed)
Carbendazim 2.5gm
Captan 2.5gm
Thiram 2.5gm
Mancozeb 2.5gm

Fertilizer:-

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTSH ZINC
11 60 # #

Nutirent Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
5 10 #

At time of sowing, apply [email protected] in form of [email protected] per acre and [email protected] in form of [email protected]/acre.

Weed control:-

To keep field weed free, one or two hoeing are required. Take first hoeing one month after sowing. To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of [email protected]/acre in 100-200Ltrs of water.

Irrigation:-

Mash is grown as a kharif crop. If needed provide irrigation depending upon the climatic conditions.

Diseases and their control:-

Yellow mosaic virus: It is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves. Pods not developed on infected plants.

Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties. For white fly control, take spray of [email protected], [email protected] 600ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.

Cercospora leaf spot: As a preventive measure, do seed treatment with Captan and Thiram. Use cercospora leaf spot resistant variety. If infestation is observed take spray of Zineb [email protected]/acre. Take two to three sprays at interval of 10days.

 Pest and their control:-

Sucking pest (Jassid, aphid, white fly): If infestation is observed, take spray of [email protected] or [email protected] or Oxydemeton [email protected]/acre.

For white fly control, take spray of [email protected] [email protected]/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.

Tobacco caterpillar: If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate [email protected]/acre or Chlorpyriphos [email protected] 1.5Ltr/acre. If necessary take second spray 10days after first spray.

Hairy Caterpillar: To control hairy caterpillar pick caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when infestation is low. In case of high infestation, take spray of [email protected] or [email protected]/acre.

Pod Borer: Serious pest cause heavy loss in yield. If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb [email protected] or Acephate [email protected] or Spinosad [email protected]/acre. Repeat spray after two weeks.

Mite: If infestation is observed take spray of Dimethoate [email protected]/acre.Mite: If infestation is observed take spray of Dimethoate [email protected]/acre.

Blister beetle: They cause damage at flowering stage. They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.

If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb [email protected] or Acephate [email protected]/acre. Carry out spraying in evening hours and if necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

Harvesting:-

Best time for harvesting of mash is when leaves are shed and pods become greyish black. Cut crop with sickle and then spread harvested crop on floor to dry. Then threshing is done and seeds are separated from pods.

References:-

.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare