It is the biological active compounds which help in biological nitrogen fixation for the benefit of the plants. Use of bio-fertilizers is essential in organic farming.
Commonly used bio-fertilizers are:-
Rhizobium: By adding this, it gives rise to better root and stem nodulation and helps in nitrogen fixation mainly in pulses, legume green manures and oil seeds crops. It is applied during seed treatment.
Azotobacter: It is suitable for applying in vegetables, orchards, tapiocas and plantation crops. In upland conditions, it fixes about 6-7kg/acre nitrogen and reduces the need of nitrogen fertilizer upto 10-20%. It is applied during seed treatment or seedling dip or through direct soil application.
Azospirillum: Suitable for use in upland and wetland conditions. In ideal conditions, it fixes about 8-10kg/acre nitrogen and reduces the need of nitrogen fertilizer upto 25%. It helps in the formation of better roots.
Azolla: Suitable for wetland rice cultivation. It fixes about 10-12kg/acre nitrogen.
Blue green algae (BGA): Suitable for wetland rice cultivation. It fixes about 10-12kg/acre nitrogen. It is suitable for using in acidic soils having pH below than 6.0.
Vesicular/ Arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM/ AMF): Suitable for upland crops. It induces the better resistance again soil borne plant pathogens. It is applied through soil application.
Method of application:-
Seed treatment: For the treatment of 5-10kg seeds, it requires 500gm of culture. Firstly moisten the seeds. Then take plastic tray or basin, add 500gm of culture and moistened seeds. Mix them well and then it is shade dried for 30 minutes. After drying, immediately sowing is done.
Seedling root dip: The method is used at the time of transplanting. Firstly slurry is prepared by mixing 500gm culture in 50ml water. In slurry, roots are dipped for 15-20 minutes before transplanting.
Soil application: Culture is mixed in FYM or compost in the ratio of 1:25 and then it is directly applied in the soil.
Appropriate amount of organic manure is used along with bio-fertilizer application. It is important for good survival, growth and activity of introduced culture.
Liming is necessary if soil has pH below than 6.0. In moderately acidic soil, application of lime is done @100kg/acre with bio-fertilizer treatment.
In summers irrigation is necessary after bio-fertilizer application.
Bio-fertilizers must be used as prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards.
Bio-fertilizer must be used before the expiry date.
For growth enhancement, top dressing with superphosphate @10kg/acre is done after inoculation of BGA.
The dead body of humans or dead plants gets decomposed in soil in natural way. Decaying procedure is done by bacteria, fungus, virus etc. In decaying procedure gas is produced. This gas is known as biogas. This procedure can be done in air and as well as without air.
Without air condition the gas which is produced through organic elements contains 50-55% methane gas, 30-35% carbon dioxide gas and ample quantity of nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, oxygen etc. In 1900s in India in the Leprosy museum situated in Matunga, Mumbai the plant is installed which produces biogas from dung. Then the technique for production of gobar gas with dung is developed. Among these two techniques gets famous:
Floating drum model or K.V.K model
Deenbandhu model or Fix dome model
These plants produce odorless methane gas which is produced from the blue flame and gives suitable energy which helps in preparing food in half time. After preparing food, other tasks can also be taken from the gas:
Using as a light at night time:-
By using diesel engine will help to save 80-85% of gas. With diesel machine water pumpsets, flour grinding machine etc. can also be run.
For producing electricity.
For every work where energy is required for example welding etc.
Seed germination through newspaper method:-
Newspaper method is very effective for seed germination. By this method seeds germinate within 2-3 days. Later it is beneficial to make the place in the field and water it immediately after sowing. Fold the paper four times and then dip the newspaper in the water. Afterthat place the seeds at some distance on the newspaper and then roll the newspaper and tie it with thread. When root formation starts then sow them in the soil.
After choosing for Desi or advanced varieties, before seed sowing two things must be kept in the mind, first before sowing do inspection of seeds whether they are good or not by doing seed germination and second if the seeds are good then sowing must be done after doing seed treatment.
Germination inspection:- It is done in the same way as done in houses for pulse germination. Soak the seeds in water for some hours (this method gets changes according to climate and type of seeds, Chick pea seeds needs to be soaked for 7-8 hours in summer season. In winter season it will take more time for germination. The seeds having thin layer takes less time for germination).Then the seeds are placed on thick cotton cloth and kept in the dark but in airy place. Maintain the moisture level. If the germination percentage is less than 70-90% then change the seeds. If seeds exchange is not possible then increase the number of seeds.Another easy method for germination inspection is to fold the paper four times and then dip the newspaper in the water. Without using lime, place 50-100 seeds on newspaper at some distances and then fold the newspaper. Then close both the corners of the newspaper with thread loosely. And then again soak the newspaper in water. Drain out the extra water. After removing excess water put the newspaper in polythene bag and hang it internally in the house. After 3-4 days open the newspaper and count the number of seedlings.The seed inspection procedure should be done before 2-3 weeks of sowing so that if seeds are needed to be changed then they can be changed on time.
Plant Growth Technique:-
Plant growth technique:-
Urine:- Cow urine has the power to kill insects and act as a catalyst. In one spray pump add [email protected] in 16ltr water. (In gourd family add 150ml of urine in 16ltr water).
Pot manure:- One pot manure is mixed well in 300ltr water and this solution is given near the plant’s soil will give good results (1-2 pot per acre). If this mixture is filtered in cotton cloth and then filtered material is usedfor spraying, then it gives moreyield of fruit and flowers.
Gobar gas slurry:- The plant which produces fresh manure contains 1.5-2% nitrogen. Mix 20kg manure in 200ltr water. Use this mixture by spraying it in near the soil of the plant. If this mixture is filtered in cotton cloth and then it is used it gives more yield of fruit and flowers.
Vermiwash:- By washing earthworms the liquid which comes out is known as vermiwash. Take 250-500ml liquid and then mix it in 16ltr water which is used for spraying after every 20-25 days.
Fresh lassi:- Mix250-500ml lassi in 16ltr water and then used for spraying. This will help in good growth and development of plant.
Cow’s milk:- 250-500ml cow’s milk is mixed in 16ltr of water. By spraying this mixture it will lead to good growth of plant.
Soyabean tonic:- Soyabean contains abundant quantity of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium, Sulphur etc. Its use is done for plant growth. 1kg seeds of soybean are soaked in water for 24 hours. After 24 hours soaked soybean seeds are crushed in mixer. Now in crushed soybean add 4ltr water and 250gm jaggery. Put this mixture in pot for 3-4 days. Mixture is filtered with the help of cotton cloth. Filtered solution is used as tonic which is mixed in 16ltr water pump and is used for spraying. By using of this spray it will gives best results. It is used with irrigation water @25-30ltr per acre for good plant growth and development.
Production of CropsThrough Vaccine:-
Production of crops through vaccine:-
Neel Harit Shaival vaccine:- Beneficial for rice crop. Along with nitrogen it also provides organic and plant growth elements. To treat one acre rice crop, 500gm packet is enough. 8-12kg nitrogen per acre is beneficial for crop.
Azolla vaccine:-This is an ideal biological system, which helps in nitrogen fixation in the paddy fields in the hotter direction. Azolla produces 10-12kg per acre of nitrogen.
Green manure:- Grow green manure once in a year to maintain the carbonic content in the fields. Pulse crops, tree leaves and weeds after sowing are used in green manure. Pulse crop family produces 10-25ton green manure. By sowing them, 25-40kg per acre of nitrogen is produced.
Dhaincha:- This crop is ready for transplanting in main field in 40-60 days. The crop produces 20-25kg of nitrogen per acre. For sowing, use seed rate of 12-15kg per acre. 2-3 irrigations are necessary. Other than this use Neel Harit Shaivaal vaccine, Arbascular mycorrhiza neutrilink vaccine, etc is also beneficial.
Compost vaccine:- With the use of this vaccination,in 6 to 9 weeks good compost is made from the rice straw. It produces 20-40kg per acre of nitrogen. A single packet contains 500gm vaccine which is used for 1ton agricultural residues to make compost.
Rhizobium vaccine:- Vaccination of rhizobium is used for pulses, oilseeds and fodder crops. It produces 20-40kg per acre of nitrogen. It increases 25-30% of crop yield.
Azotobacter vaccine:- It is an independent free bacterium. Its use is done in wheat, rice, maize, bajra, tomato, potato, brinjal, onion, cotton, mustard etc. It produces 6-8kg nitrogen per acre. It helps in increasing yield of crop upto 10-20%.
Azospirillum vaccine:- It is used in cereal crops, for example in sorghum, bajra, finger millet, cereals and oats etc. It is also beneficial for fodder crops. It produces 6-8kg per acre of nitrogen. The production of fodder crops increases.
Phosphorus solubilizing bacterial vaccine:- Phosphorus is an important element for plants. By this vaccination the insoluble phosphorus gets converted into soluble phosphorus which is available for plants.