Introduction about Guava Fruit:-

Common but important commercial fruit crop of India. It is native to Central America. It can grow in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It is rich source of Vitamin C and Pectin along with Calcium and Phosphorus. It is the fourth most important crop after Mango, Banana and Citrus. It can be grown all over India. Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, WB, AP and Tamilnadu are the major stated growing guava. Also it can be successfully grown throughout Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. In Punjab, it occupies an area of 8022ha with annual production of 160463MT.

Climate:-

Season
Temperature
15-30°C
Season
Rainfall
100cm
Season
Sowing Temperature
15-20°C
25-30°C
Season
Harvesting Temperature
20-25°C
18-22°C

Soil :-

It is a hardy crop. And grows wells in all type of soil from poor, alkaline and ill drained soil. It can grow in soil having pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. It gives best results when grown under deep, well drained, sandy loam to clay loam soil.

Popular varieties with yield:-

Punjab Pink: Fruits is of medium to large size with attractive skin color, gives golden yellow color in summer season. Flesh of fruit is of red color with pleasant flavour. TSS ranges from 10.5 to 12%. Gives average yield of 155 kg per tree.

Allahbad Safeda: Dwarf variety with round crown and spreading branches. Fruit is smooth, round and flesh is of white color with pleasant flavor. TSS ranges from 10-12%. Gives average yield of 145 kg per Tree.

Arka Amulya: Dwarf variety with compact, round crown with dense foliage. Fruit is of large size, smooth, round and having white flesh. TSS ranges from 9.3 to 10.1%. Gives average yield of 144 kg per Tree.

Sardar: Also known as L-49. Dwarf variety with spreading branches. Fruit is large in size having rough surface. Flesh is of creamy white, smooth, juicy with rich test. TSS ranges from 10-12%. Gives average yield of 130-155 kg per tree.
Punjab Safeda: It has creamy and white flesh. The fruit contains 13.4% sugar content and are 0.62% sour.

Punjab Kiran: It has pink flesh. The fruit contains 12.3% sugar content and 0.44% sour content. The seeds are small and soft.

Shweta: It has creamy white flesh. The fruit contains 10.5-11.0% sucrose content. It gives an average yield of 151kg per tree.

Nigiski: It gives an average yield of 80kg per tree.

Punjab Soft: It gives an average yield of 85kg per tree.

Other States Variety:

Allahabad Surkha: Seedless variety. Large fruit with uniform pink color flesh.

Apple guava: Pink colored medium size fruits. Fruits are having sweet taste with good keeping quality.

Chittidar: Popular variety of Uttar Pradesh. Fruits are similar to Allahbad Safeda variety except these fruits having red dots on skin. Its TSS content is higher than Allahbad Safeda and L 49 variety.

Land preparation:-

Do ploughing, cross ploughing of land and then levelled the land. Prepare land in such way that water stagnation should not occurred in field.

Sowing:-

Time of sowing:
February-March or August-September month is optimum time for planting of Guava.

Spacing:
For planting use spacing of 6x5 m. Use of planting distance of 7m, then in square system, 132 plants can be accommodating in one acre.

Sowing Depth:
Roots should be sown at the depth of 25 cm.

Method of sowing:
Direct sowing.
Transplanting method.
Budding
Rootstock raising

Propagation:-

Plants are propagated by budding or Air layering. Sardar variety seeds are tolerant to wilt and can be used for raising rootstock. Extract seed from ripen fruit and sow them in raise bed in August-March. Make raised beds of 2mx1m. When seedling becomes six months old they are ready for transplantation. Transplanted seedling when attain diameter of 1-1.2cm and height of 15cm they are ready for budding process. May and June months are best for budding process. Freshly cut, angular bud wood from current season’s growth is used for budding purpose.

Pruning and training:-

Training and Pruning is necessary to provide stronger frame work to guava tree. Stronger frame work helps to support high yield. To maintain the productivity of trees, light pruning at time of first harvesting is necessary. Regularly remove dead and diseased infected branches. Modified leader system of training is followed. Flowers in guava are borne on current seasons growth so carry out light annual pruning and remove upto 10cm tip, it will encourage new shoots after harvesting.

Intercrops:-

During initial 3-4years, grow vegetable like carrot, okra, brinjal and radish can be taken as intercrop. Also legumes crop like gram, beans can be sown as intercrop.

Fertilizer:-

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
Age of crop(Year)
Well decomposed cow dung(in kg)
Urea(in gm)
SSP(in gm)
MOP(in gm)
First to three year 10-20 150-200 500-1500 100-400
Four to six year 25-40 300-600 1500-2000 600-1000
Seven to ten year 40-50 750-1000 2000-2500 1100-1500
Ten year and above 50 1000 2500 1500
When crop is of 1-3 year old, apply well composed cow [email protected] kg per tree along with [email protected] gm, [email protected] gm and [email protected] gm per Tree. For 4-6year old crop, apply [email protected] kg, [email protected] gm, [email protected] gm, [email protected] gm-1000 gm per tree. When crop become 7-10 year old, apply [email protected] kg, [email protected] gm, [email protected] gm and [email protected] gm per Tree.
When crop age is above 10 year, apply [email protected] kg per tree, [email protected] gm, [email protected] gm and [email protected] gm per Tree.
Apply half of dose of Urea, SSP and MOP and full dose of cowdung, in May-June month and remaining half dose in September - October.

Weed control:-

Weed control is necessary for good crop growth and yield. To keep check on weed growth, apply Gramoxone 6ml/litre of water in March, July and September month. Apply [email protected]/acre as post-emergence when weed growth is active (before weeds flower and attained height of 15-20cm). 200Ltr of water is sufficient to spray one acre land.

Irrigation:-

After planting, irrigate crop immediately, then irrigate on third day, afterwards irrigate depending upon soil type and climate. Irrigation is not required to well establish orchards. Young plantation required irrigation at weekly interval in summer month and 2-3 irrigation during winter month. Avoid flood irrigation during flowering stage as it leads to excessive flower drop.

Pest and their control:-

Fruit Fly: It is serious pest of guava. Females lay eggs below epidermis of young fruits. Later on maggots feed on pulp afterward fruits starts rotting and get drop.

If orchards are having history of fruit fly, avoid taking rainy season crop. Do harvesting at right time. Avoid delay in harvesting. Remove and destroyed infested branches, fruits away from field. Take spray of [email protected] in 150Ltr of water at weekly intervals on fruit ripening. Harvest should be done after third day of spraying.

Mealy Bug: They suck sap from different plant parts and thus weaken plant. If infestations of sucking pests like Mealy bug is observed then to control spray with Chlorpyriphos 50EC @300ml/100Ltr of water.

Guava Shoot Borer: It is a serious pest of nursery. Infested shoots get dry up.

If infestation is observed, take spray of [email protected] or [email protected] in 100Litres of water per acre.

Aphid: Serious and common pest of Guava. Adult and nymphs, both suck the sap thus weaken the plant. In severe infestation, they cause curling and deformation of young leaves. They secrete honey dew like substance and Sooty, black mould is developed on affected parts.

If infestation is observed to control takes spray of [email protected] or Methyl [email protected] per 10Ltr water on new flush.

Disease and their control:-

Wilt: Serious disease of Guava crop. Yellowing, wilting of leaves along with defoliation are symptoms of wilt infestation.

Keep field well drained; avoid water logging condition in field. Remove and destroyed infected plants away from field. Drench nearby soil with Copper [email protected] or [email protected]/10Ltr of water

Anthracnose or Dieback: Dark brown or black spots are observed on shoots. On fruits also small, raise, dark spots are observed. Fruits rot completely within 2 to 3days after infection.

Keep field clean, destroyed infected plant parts, fruits also avoid water logging condition in soil. After pruning take spray of [email protected] in 100Ltr water. At fruit set repeat the spray of Captan and continue till fruits get mature with interval of 10-15days. If infestation observed in field take spray of Copper [email protected]/10Ltr on infected trees.

Harvesting:-

Within 2-3years after planting comes to bearing. Harvesting should be done when fruits get mature. On maturity, fruits changes color from dark green to greenish yellow. Do harvesting at proper time and avoid over-ripening of fruits as it deteriorates quality and test.

Post harvest:-

After harvesting, carry out cleaning, grading and packing operations. As gauva is perishable fruits, it should be marketed immediately after harvest. For packing use CFB, corrugated fibre boxes or bamboo baskets of different size.

References:-

1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare