General Introduction:-
Paddy, also called rice paddy, small, level, flooded field used to cultivate rice in southern and eastern Asia. Wet-rice cultivation is the most prevalent method of farming in the Far East, where it utilizes a small fraction of the total land yet feeds the majority of the rural population. The earliest remains of the grain in the Indian subcontinent have been found in the Indo-Gangetic Plain and date from 7000–6000 BC though the earliest widely accepted date for cultivated rice is placed at around 3000–2500 BC with findings in regions belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Leading countries based on the production of milled rice in 2018/2019 (in million metric tons)*.

Climate:-
Temperature 16-30 c,Rainfall 100-200cm,sowing temperature 20-30 c ,harvesting temperature 16-27 c.
Soil:-
It can be grown on a variety of soils with low permeability and pH varying from 5.0 to 9.5. Sandy loam to loamy sand to silty loam to clay loams, silty to clayey loam soils with low permeability, free of water logging and sodicity are considered best for paddy cultivation.
Popular varities with yield:-

PR 128: PR 128 of rice is an improved version of PAU 201. It possesses long slender clear translucent grains. Its average plant height is 110 cm and matures in about 111 days after transplanting. It is resistant to all the 10 presently prevalent pathotypes of bacterial blight pathogen in the Punjab state. Its average paddy yield is 30.5 quintals per acre.

PR 129: PR 129 of rice is an improved version of PAU 201. It possesses long slender clear translucent grains. Its average plant height is 105 cm and matures in about 108 days after transplanting. It is resistant to all the 10 presently prevalent pathotypes of bacterial blight pathogen in the Punjab state. Its average paddy yield is 30.0 quintals per acre.

HKR 47: HKR 47 is a mid-early maturity variety of rice. It takes 104 days to mature after transplanting and its average plant height is 117 cm. It is susceptible to all the 10 presently prevalent pathotypes of bacterial blight pathogen in Punjab and is prone to lodging. Its average yield is 29.5 quintals per acre. It is suitable for parboiling.
PR 111: It is short-statured, stiff strewed variety and it leave are erect and dark green in color. It matures in 135 days. Its grains are long, slender and clear. It is resistant bacterial leaf blight disease and gives average yield of 27 qtl/acre.
PR 113: It is short-statured, stiff strewed variety and its leave is erect and dark green in color. It matures in 142 days. Grain is bold and heavy. It is resistant bacterial leaf blight disease and gives average yield of 28 qtl/acre.PR 114: It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety having narrow, dark green erect leaves. It matures in 145 days. Its grains are extra-long, clear translucent grains with very good cooking quality. It gives average yield of 27.5 qtl/acre"
PR 115: It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety having narrow, dark green erect leaves. It matures in 125 days. Its grains are long slender, translucent with good cooking quality. It gives average yield of 25 qtl/acre
PR 116: It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety. It show resistant to lodging. Its leaves are light green and erect. It matures in 144 days. Its grains are long, slender and translucent. Its average yield is 28 quintals/acre.
CSR 30: The variety has extra-long slender shaped grains which are known for its excellent cooking and good eating qualities. The variety gets mature within 142 days after transplanting. It gives an average yield of 13.5qtl/acre.
Punjab Basmati 3: Developed by PAU Ludhiana. It has excellent cooking and eating quality. It is improved version of basmati 386. It is resistant to lodging and Bacterial Blight. Its grains are extra-long and having excellent aroma. It give average yield of 16qtl/acre.
Punjab Basmati 4: It is a high yielding variety and semi dwarf variety which is 96cm tall. It is a lodging tolerant variety and is resistant to bacterial blight. The variety gets mature within 146 days after transplanting. It gives an average yield of 17qtls/acre.
Punjab Basmati 5: It is also a high yielding variety which gives an average yield of 15qtls/acre. The variety gets mature within 137 days after transplanting. Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509: Early maturing variety i.e ready to harvest in 120 days. It is susceptible to bacterial blight. Its grains extra long, slender and possess excellent cooking quality. It is suitable for multiple cropping pattern. It gives average yield of 15.7 qtl/acre.
Pusa Basmati 1121: Tall variety and ready to harvest in 137 days. Aromatic variety with longest cooking length and having great cooking quality. It gives average yield of 13.7 qtl/acre.
Pusa 44: Long duration variety and it is susceptible to bacterial blight.

Land preparation:-
After harvesting of wheat grow dhaincha (seed rate 20 kg/acre) or sunhemp @ 20 kg/acre or cowpea @ 12 kg/acre up to first week of May. When crop is of 6-8 week old, bury them into the soil one day before transplanting of paddy. It will save 25 kg of N per acre. Use laser land leveler for land levelling. After then puddle soil and to obtained fine well levelled puddle field to reduce water loss through percolation.

Seed rate:- 8kg seeds are sufficient for planting in one acre land.

Seed treatment:-Before sowing, soak them in 10 Ltr water containing, Carbendazim@20gm+ Streptocycline@1gm for 8 to 10 hour before sowing. After then dry seeds in shade. And then use for sowing.
Also you can use below mention fungicides to protect crop from root rot disease. Use chemical fungicides first then treat seed with Trichoderma.
Fungicide/Insecticide name Quantity (Dosage per kg of seeds)
Trichoderma 5-10 gm
Chlorpyriphos 5 ml.

Sowing:-

Time of sowing:-

20 may to 5 june is the optimum time for sowing.

Spacing:-For normal sown crop a spacing of 20 - 22.5 cm between rows is recommended. When sowing is delayed a closer spacing of 15-18 cm should be adopted.

 Method of sowing:-

Broadcasting method.

 Sowing depth:-

The seedlings should be transplanted at 2 to 3 cm depth. Shallow planting gives better yields.

Before sowing, soak them in 10 Ltr water containing, Carbendazim@20gm+ Streptocycline@1gm for 8 to 10 hour before sowing. After then dry seeds in shade. And then use for sowing.

 Nursing Management and Transplanting;-

Nursery Preparation: 15th to 30th May is the optimum time for nursery preparation.

Wet bed nursery: It is done in region having adequate water availability. Nursery area is about 1/10 of the area to be transplanted. Broadcast Pre-germinated seeds on puddled and levelled soil. Keep the beds moist for the first few days. Do not flood the beds. When the seedlings are about 2 cm high, keep the beds submerged in a shallow layer of water. Apply dose of 26 kg/acre Urea about a fortnight after sowing. For transplantation use seedlings of 15-21 days or when seedlings are 25-30 cm long. Regularly irrigated the nursery.

Dry Bed: It is prepared in dry soil condition. Total seed bed area is about 1/10 of the area to be transplanted. Make seed bed of convenient dimensions with the soil raised at height of 6-10 cm. Spread half burned rice husk on these beds for easy uprooting. Irrigation should be done properly because less moisture can damage seedling. Incorporate basal fertilizer for proper nutrients.

Modified Mat nursery: This is the modified method of nursery making which require less space and less quantity of seeds. It can be cultivated at any place having flat surface and assured water supply. The area needed is about 1% of the transplantable land. Establishing seedlings in 4 cm layer of soil mix, arranged on a firm surface. Make 1 meter wide and 20-30 meter long plot and spread plastic sheet or banana leaves on it. Place a wooden frame with 4 cm deep and then fill the frame with soil mixture. Sow pre-germinated seed in it and cover the seed with dry soil. Immediately sprinkle water on it. Irrigate frame as and when needed and keep it moist. Seedlings are ready for transplanting within 11 to 14 days of sowing. Transport seedling mat to field and separate them and transplant 1-2 seedlings at 20x20 cm or 25x25 cm spacing.

Depth of planting: The seedlings should be transplanted at 2 to 3 cm depth. Shallow planting gives better yields

Method of transplanting:-

1) Flat puddled transplanting: Transplant seedlings in line at 20x15 cm for normal and 15x15 cm for late transplanting. Put 2 seedlings per hill and the seedlings should be transplanted upright and about 2-3 cm deep.

2) Bed Transplanting: Transplant seedlings on middle of slopes of bed. These bed are prepared by wheat bed planter in heavy soil. Before transplanting irrigate the furrows, then transplant seedlings by maintaining a plant to plant distance of 9 cm.

3) Mechanical transplanting: For transplanting Mat type nursery, mechanical transplanter are used. It transplant seedlings at spacing of 30x12 cm. 

Fertilizer:-

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREA DAP or SSP MOP ZINC
110 27 75 20 -

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)
NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
50 12 12

For paddy apply N:P:K@50:12:12 kg/acre in form of Urea @110 kg/acre, SSP@75 kg/acre and MOP@20 kg/acre. Before fertilizer application, carried out soil test and apply fertilizer on the basis of soil test result. Apply P and K dose if soil test show deficiency of it. If DAP is to be used, apply Urea@100 kg/acre, DAP@27 kg/acre and MOP@20 kg/acre. Apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen and whole dose of P and K before last puddling.

Apply second dose three week after transplanting and three weeks after 2nd dose, apply remaining dose of Nitrogen. Use neem coated Urea as it will increased uptake of N. Apply Zinc sulphate heptahydrate@25 kg or zinc sulphate monohydrate@16 kg/acre at puddling to overcome zinc deficiency. Due to water scarcity, young leaves give yellow or yellow white appearance about three week after transplanting. Apply irrigation immediately also spray with ferrous sulphate@1 kg/100 ltr water per acre, two-three time with weekly intervals.

Weed control:-

Use Butachlor 50 EC @ 1200 ml/acre or Thiobencarb 50 EC @ 1200 ml or Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1000 ml or Pretilachlor 50 EC @ 600 ml per acre as pre-emergence herbicides, 2 to 3 days after transplanting. Mix any one of these herbicides in 60 kg of sand per acre and broadcast uniformly in 4-5 cm deep standing water.
For broadleaf weed control, apply Metsulfuron 20 WP @ 30 gm/acre in 150 Ltr water as post emergence, 20-25 days after transplanting. Before spray, drained out the standing water from the field and apply irrigation one day after spray.

Irrigation:-

Keep field flooded up to two weeks after transplanting. When all water gets infiltrated two day after apply irrigation in field. Depth of standing water should not exceed 10 cm. While doing intercultural and weeding operation, drain out excess water from field and irrigate field after completion of this operations. Stop irrigation about a fortnight before maturity to facilitate easy harvesting.

Keep field flooded up to two weeks after transplanting. When all water gets infiltrated two day after apply irrigation in field. Depth of standing water should not exceed 10 cm. While doing intercultural and weeding operation, drain out excess water from field and irrigate field after completion of this operations. Stop irrigation about a fortnight before maturity to facilitate easy harvesting.

Plant protection:-

Pest and their control:
Root Weevil: The presence of root weevil can be detected by the root and leave damage of yield. These are white legless grub feeds mainly on root. Plant gives yellow appearance, growth gets stunted and few tillers are form.
If incidence is observed apply Carbaryl (4G)@10 kg either Phorate (10 G)@4 kg or Carbofuran (3 G) @10 kg per acre.

Plant Hoppers: These mainly occur in the irrigated wetland conditions or in rainfed areas. The presence of pest shows the browning of the yield, sooty moulds and honeydew present in bases where infected.

If incidence is observed to control, spray with Dichlorvos @ 126 ml or 400 gm Carbaryl in 250 Ltr of water per acre or Imidacloprid @ 40 ml or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 400 ml or Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr in 100 ltrs of water per acre.

USES OF Leaf folder: This pest develops in high humidity and specifically found where rice is fertilized heavily. Larva fold the leaves and eat the plant tissue and produces white streaks.

Control: If infestation is observed spray crop with Cartap hydrochloride @ 170 gm or Triazophos @350 ml or Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr in 100 Ltr of water per acre.
Rice Hispa: It is serious pest in some districts. Larva create tunnel into leaves and thus destroyed leaves by producing white streaks on leaves.

If Infestation is observed in field, spray crop with Methyl Parathion@120 ml or Quinalphos 25 EC@400 ml or Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr in 100 ltr of water per acre.

Stem borer: Larva bore into the stem and causes dead heart. The old ones produce empty ear heads which turn white.
Control: If infestation is observed in field take spray of Cartap hydrochloride @ 170 gm or Triazophos @ 350 ml or Chlorpyriphos @ 1 Ltr per 100 Ltr of water.

Diseases and their control:-

Blast: Due to blast disease, spindle shaped spots with greyish centre and brown margin observed on the leaves. Also give neck rot symptoms and panicles get fall over. Observed in areas having excessive use of Nitrogen.

If infestation is observed, spray with Zineb@500 gm/acre in 200 Ltr of water.

Karnal Bunt: Few grains in panicle get affected first and part of grain gets converted into black powder. In severe condition whole panicle gets affected and black powder spread on leaves, grains etc.

To control this disease, avoid excess use of Nitrogen. When crop is at 10% flowering stage, take spray of Tilt 25 EC @200 ml/200 litre of water. Repeat the spray with interval of 10 days.
Brown leaf spot: It produces oval, eye-shaped spots with a conspicuous dark-brown dot in the centre and light brown margin. Spots are developed on grains also. In low nutrient soil, this attacked more.

Harvesting:-

Reap the yield once the panicles are developing fully as well as the crops get changed significantly yellow. The yield is generally harvested manually by sickles or by blend harvester. The harvested crops, tied up into compact bundles, strike it against really hard surface to split the grains from straw, accompanied by winnowing.

 Post Harvesting:-

The post-harvest method includes some procedures which include the interval from harvest to utilization 1) harvesting 2) threshing 3) cleaning 4) drying 5) warehouse 6) milling then transport to the trade.
Before the storage of grains to protect harvested stuff from pest and disease attack, mix 500 gm Neem seed dust with 10 Kg of seed. To protect stored grains from pests attacked Mix Malathion 50 EC@30 ml/3 Ltr of water. Spray for 1002meter storage area at every 15 days

Rank of rice production:-

Production in million metric tons
China 148.5
India 116.42
Indonesia 36.7
Bangladesh 34.91

References:-

1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare