Important fruit crop of temperate region. It belongs to the family Rosaceae. It can be grown at 1,700-2,400m above mean sea-level. Pear fruit is rich source of Protein and Vitamins. due to its wider adaptability of climate and soil pear can be grown in subtropical to temperate regions. In India Pear is cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and U.P and low chilling varieties do well in subtropical regions.
It can be grown on variety of soil ranging from sandy loam to clay loam. It gives best results when grown in deep, well drained, fertile soil without having any hard pan upto 2meter depth. pH of soil should not be more than 8.7.
Popular varieties with yield:-
Patharnakh: It is a hard and spreading variety. Fruits are of medium size, round and green with prominent dot on it. Flesh is juicy and crisp. Because of its good keeping quality it is useful for long distance transport. It mature is July last week. Gives average yield of 150 kg per tree.
Punjab Nakh: It is a hard pear variety. It is selection from Patharnakh. It is also spreading variety. Fruits are oval shape, light yellowish green with prominent dots. Flesh is crisp and juicy. Fruits get ready to harvest in fourth week of July. It gives average yield of 190 kg per tree.
Punjab Gold: It is a semi soft variety of pear. Fruits are large with golden yellow color with white flesh. Fruits get mature at July end. This variety is suitable for processing. Gives average yield of 80 kg per tree.
Punjab Nectar: It is a semi soft variety of pear. Tree is of medium height. Fruits are of medium to large size. Fruits are of yellow green color with white flesh. On ripening fruits become juicy. It get mature in fourth week of July. Gives average yield of 80 kg per tree.
Punjab Beauty: It is a semi soft variety of pear. Trees are of medium size, upright and bear regularly. Fruits are of medium size with yellow and red blush. Flesh is of white color and more juicy and sweet. Fruits mature in July third week. It gives average yield of 80 kg per plant.
Le conte: It is a semi soft variety of pear. Fruits are of small to medium size. Fruits are of greenish yellow color with white juicy, sweet flesh. It get mature in first week of August. Gives average yield of 60-80 kg per tree.
Nigisiki: It is a semi pear variety. Fruits are juicy having white flesh and TSS of 12.9%. Fruits are ready for harvesting in June end to first week of July.
Punjab soft: It is a semi Pear variety. Fruits are of medium size with white flesh with TSS of 11.3%.
Other state variety:
Keiffer: Early maturing variety. Fruits are large, golden yellow colored.
Baggugosha: It is a semi soft variety of pear. Fruits are of greenish yellow color with flesh is sweet and of cream or white color. Fruits get mature in August first week. The vareity is suitable for transportation purpose. It gives an average yield of 60 kg per tree.
Time of sowing:
Planting is completed in January Month. One year old plants are used for planting.
Plants are planted at distance of 8 x 4 m. Before planting, clear land and remove remains of earlier plants. Then levelled land properly and give gentle slope for water drainage.
Dig a pit of 1x1x1 m size and fill pits one month before planting in November month with top soil and add well rotten farm yard manure and then allow it to settle. Finally pit should be filled with sub soil mixed with 10-15 kg of well decomposed cow dung, 500 kg SSP and drench the pit with Chlorpyriphos@50ml/10litre of water per pit. After planting, irrigation should be done.
Method of sowing:
For planting, square or rectangular planting can be adopted. In hilly areas contour system of planting is used for cultivation.
The seedling rootstocks used for pear are Kainth. Collect fully mature seeds of Kainth from September end to October first week crops. Extract seeds and place them in wooden box containing alternate layer of moist sand in December month for 30days. In January month sow them in nursery. In 10days seeds get germinate. Seedling is ready for grafting in January of next year.
2) Place seeds in wooden box containing moist sand layer for germinate. They get germinated with 10-12days. After then, place seedling in field at distance of 10cm. Keep 60cm distance after every four lines. Seedling is ready for grafting in December-January.
Pear is T budded or tongue grafted on kainth seedling. Grafting is done in December January or T budded in May-June.
In kharif season, crop like Mash, Moong, Toria can be taken as intercrops whereas in Wheat, Pea, Gram are taken as rabi crop during non-bearing season.
Pruning and training:-
Training is done for the development of strong framework of scaffold branches to get higher yield and quality fruit. The pear trees are trained according to modified central leader system.
Pruning: Remove all diseased, dead, broken weak branches, head back 1/4th during dormant season to induce spreading of branches.
Age of the crop
Well decomposed cow dung
First to three year 10-20 100-300 200-600 150-450
Four to six 25-35 400-600 800-1200 600-900
Seven to nine 40-60 700-900 1400-1800 1050-1350
Ten and above 60 1000 2000 1500
When Crop is 1-3 year, apply 10-20 kg of well decomposed cow dung, 100-300 gm of Urea, SSP@200-600 gm, MOP@150-450 gm per Tree. For 4-6 year old crop, apply 25-35 kg of cowdung, Urea@400-600 gm, SSS@800-1200 gm and MOP@600-900 gm per Tree. For 7-9 year old crop, apply Cowdung@40-60 kg, Urea@700-900 gm, SSP@1400-1800 gm, MOP@1050-1350 gm per tree. For 10 year and above, apply 60 kg of Cowdung, Urea@1000 gm, SSP@2000 gm, MOP@1500 gm per tree.
Apply whole amount of cowdung, SSP and MOP in December Month. Apply half dose of Urea before flowering i.e in early February and remaining half dose after fruit set i.e in April Month
Spray with Diuron @ 1.6 kg/acre as pre-emergence after completing ploughing. The weeds can be controlled as post emergence by Glyphosate @ 1.2 Ltr/acre or Paraquat @ 1.2 Ltr/acre in 200Ltr of water when weeds are 15-20 cm in height.
A well distributed average rainfall of 75–100cm is required throughout the year for pear cultivation. It needs regular irrigation after transplantation. In summer irrigate crop with 5-7days interval whereas increased irrigation interval to 15days in winter months. In January month stop irrigating trees. Give flood irrigation to bearing tree in summer month it will help to increased fruit quality and size.
Pest and their control:-
Spider Mite: They feed on leaves and suck sap thus causes yellowing of leaves.
If infestation is observed, take spray of wettable Sulphur @ 1.5 gm per Ltr of water or Propergite @ 1 ml or Fenazaquin @ 1 ml or Dicofol @ 1.5 ml per Ltr of water.
Hopper: They suck sap from influences, leaves. On infection flower get sticky and sooty mould a black color fungus is developed on affected parts.
If infestation is observed take Spray Carbaryl @ 1kg or Dimethoate @ 200ml in 200Ltr of water.
Aphid and Thrips: They suck sap from leaves and causing yellowing of leaves. They secret honey dew like subtance and black sooty mould is developed on affected areas.
Take spray of Imidacloprid@60ml or Thiamethoxam@80gm/150 ltr water when crop is at initiation of foliage in last week of Feb. take second spray in full boom in March month, and third on fruit set stage.
Disease and their control:-
Pear Scab: Dark mouldy spots are observed underside of leaves. Later they turn into gray color. Affected portion get fall off. Later on spot are observed on fruits.
Give Captan spray@2gm/ltr starting from when crop is in dormant stage and continue spray with 10 days interval till petal falls. Remove infected fruits, Plant parts and destroyed them away from field.
Root Rot: Bark and wood get turn brown with white powdery growth on it. Infected tree get wilted and give early leaves fall.
Take spray of Copper Oxychloride@400gm/200 ltr of water in March month when disease is seen. Repeat the spray in June month. Mix Carbendazim@10gm + Carboxin (Vitavax)@5gm in 10 ltr water, and apply this solution around fully grown tree for two times, first at before monsoon (April-May) and second application after monsoon (September-October). Give light irrigation to tree after this treatment.
For local markets fruits are harvested at fully mature stage and in case of distant markets firm and green fruits are picked. Delayed picking reduces storage life, unattractive colour and insipid flavour. Hard peach variety required near about 145days to mature whereas semi soft peach varieties required near about 135-140days for harvesting.
After harvesting do sorting and grading of fruits. Then pack these fruits in Corrugated Fibre Board cartons for ripening, storage and marketing purpose. Treat fruits with 1000ppm Ethephon for three to four minutes or exposed them to 100ppm ethylene gas for 24hrs and then stored at 20°C.Fruits can be stored for 60days when they are stored at 0-1°C temperature with relative humidity 90-95%.
1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare