Rose is one of the leading flowers in global floriculture. It is used in almost every event. Rose flowers are vary in size, shape and also available in various color (from white to red or multicolor). Rose is native to Asia but some rose species are native to Europe, America and Africa. Rose petals have several medicinal benefits; it is used for stress and depression relief also used to treat acne. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are major rose-growing states.
Now a day’s greenhouse farming is becoming more popular and rose farming in greenhouse is popular as it produces the high quality of flower as compared to open field cultivation.
Soils rich in organic matter and well drained sandy loam soils are suitable for Rose cultivation. For good growth it requires pH of 6 to 7.5. It is sensitive to waterlogging so provide proper drainage and remove excess water.
Popular varieties with yield:-
It consists of three main groups 1) species 2) old garden and 3) Modern rose.
Species roses: It also called as wild rose. These types of flowers consist of five petals with bright colors. They last for long time in winter.
Example: Rosa rugose: Native of Japan. These are hardy in nature. Flowers are extremely scented with wrinkled leather type leaves. They grow in dense, thick shrub. Avoid use of chemical spray as it shed its all leaves on spraying.
Banksiae: Also known as lady bank and is native of china. Flowers are small, scented and having violet color. Flower comes in small clusters.
Eglanteria: Scented flower with single petals.
Moyesh: Native of china, bears red rose.
Multiflora: Native of Asia. Flowers are strongly honey scented with white color petals.
Musk, Setigera, Sempervirens, Soulieana
Old Garden Rose: These types of flowers are more attractive and scented. Suited to warm climate and sustain well in winter. These are easy to grow, disease resistant and sustain well in winter. They grow in shrub also some grow like vine. Flowers are colorful but white and pastel color are most popular. This group consists of China roses, Tea roses, Moss Rosses, Damask roses, Bourbon Roses. Alba, Ayrshire, Gallica, Hybrid Perpetual, Portland, Ramblers, Noisette etc.
Alba: Light pink to white color flowers.
Bourbon: Light pink to deep pinkish red flowers.
Boursault: climbing type shrub. Flowers are purplish red color.
Centifolia: Also known as cabbage rose as flower are full, round. They are found in color range of white to pink.
Damask: Flowers are found in deep pink to white shades.
Hybrid Perpetual: Highly scented with large flowers, color ranges from pink to red.
Macrantha: Light pink to white color blossom. Flowers come once in late spring.
Moss: Shrub like variety and flowers comes in variety of color.
Noisette: Scented flowers with shades of pink.
Modern Roses: These are most popular and obtain from cross breeding of hybrid tea and primrose. Flowers are of various color, rich and vibrant.
Example: Hybrid tea roses, Floribunda roses, yellow permet rose, Grandiflora Roses, American Pillar, Grandifloras, Albas, Landscape Rose, Centifolia rose , mini flora, Hybrid Musk and Polyantha.
Hybrid tea: These are most popular among modern roses. Plant grows upto 3 to 5 feet and flowers petals are double or semi double. Example Paradise, Peace, Polarstern, Pristine etc.
Floribunda: Bush type variety having small flowers and even short stem. Flowers are borne in cluster. This variety contains Frisco, kiss, Florence, Jaguar, Impatient, Angel Face, Ivory Fashion.
Shrub Rose: These belong to class of wild species. They are hardy in nature and required little maintenance. These are cross between special rose and bush rose. Flowers come in mass and of large size and colorful but no definite form. Plant grows in shrub. Example: Bonica, Frau Dogmar Hartopp, Abraham Darby, Golden Wings etc.
Climbing rose: These types of roses are having long branches, required support. Required little pruning. They can grow on wall, fences etc. Flowers are large. Blaze, Don Juan, Dortmund, Climbing Iceberg, Ever blooming climbers, Rambler roses, Trailling roses and large flower climbers are belong to this class.
Miniature Roses: Plant grows up to 2 feet height. Flowers are small, attractive with various range of color. Example Rainbows End, Red Beauty, Rise N Shine.
Grandifloras: Plants are tall and grows up to height of 2-3 feet. This type is obtained from cross between Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. Flowers are medium to large and they come in small cluster. Example Aquarius, Gold Medal, Pink Parfait.
Standard or Tree Rose:
Plants grow up to height of 2-3 feet. Flowers are large and full size. These are obtained from budding of bush type varieties.
Flower Carpet: Also known as Groundcover roses. These are pest resistant and can sustain in hard winter. Example Scarlet, Amber and Pink Supreme.
Commercial Varieties: Pusa Gaurav (Pink varieties), Super Star, Montezuma, Mercedies, Pusa Priya and First Red (red varieties)
Exhibition varieties: First Prize, Eiffel Tower, Pusa Sonia, Red- Christian Dior, Montezuma, Super Star.
Scented varieties: Crimson Glory, La France, Sugandha
Other Varieties: Vivaldi, Sika, Arusumo, Proudland, Summer Fragerance, Gen Vaidya, Kalpana, Mother and Baby, Soller, Night N Day, American Home, Melina, Jogan, Amacia, Montreal, Grandmaster Piece, Pilgrim, MME Teresa Estabing, Golden Jubilee, Papa Pirosa, Chimson Tide, Belami, Elegant Beauty, Pampa, Madelon, Perfect Moment, Rocklea, Hebe Kuborgo, Polarstern, Fulton Mackay, Sweet Surrender, summer dream, Lapdef, Madosh, Dreaming, Pastel Delight, Godavari, Rosenrot, Fragerance Lady, Execiting, Roundalay, City kenda, Jessie Mathews, Portland Thail Blazer, Banco, Dame Décor, Mirandi, Lucy Cromphorn, Jean Gaujard, Krithika, Austin Reed, Tynwald, Leg glow, Emily Post, Alaska Centennial, Bacardy, Touch of Glass, Jayalalitha, Dolly Parton, MME Denise Galloise, Chaitra, Royal Amathyst, Chalis Gold, MME President, Ashwini, Command Performance, Agena, Alinka, Alliance, Alpha, Ariane, Bella Epoque, Bellease, Besancon, Blessings, Blue Monday, Bridal Bush, Bridal Dream, Brinessa, Cabaret, Cacico
To bring soil to fine tilth, carry out ploughing and hoeing operations. Prepare bed for cultivation, 4-6 weeks before planting. While preparing bed for rose cultivation, add 2tons of well decomposed cow dung and 2kg of Super Phosphate in soil. Then carry out leveling operation for uniform bed formation. Growing rose on bed is more profitable than growing individually in pit.
Time of sowing
For Northern states, Mid - October is best time for Rose cultivation. After planting, provide shade, also sprinkled water on plant if strong sunshine is observed. Planting rose in late afternoon gives best results.
On bed, plant rose in pit of 30cm diameter and 30cm deep. Keep plant to plant distance of 75cm. Distance between two plants depends upon the variety used.
Depth should be 2-3 cm.
Method of sowing
Direct sowing of seedlings.
By cutting method.
Budding method is also used.
Propagation of rose is done by rooted cutting or budding on briar root stocks. In Northern Plains, December - February is ideal time for budding (T budding).
Pruning is carried out in second year after planting and then in subsequent years. In Northern plains, rose bushes are pruned in second or third week of October. Remove dead, dry, diseased and damaged shoots and leaves. Also removes shoots which make bush crowded. Climbing roses do not required pruning. After pruning, add 7-8kg of well rotten cow dung per bush and mix well is soil.
In green house, rose are planted in 2 rows and density should be 7-14 plants/m2.
Nutrient Requirement (gm/plant)
NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
8 8 16
At time of bed preparation, add 2ton of well decomposed cow dung and 2kg of Super Phosphate in soil. At interval of three months apply well decomposed cow dung@10kg and N:P:K@8:8:16gm per plant. Apply fertilizer after completing pruning. To increased flower production, one month after pruning, take spray of GA3@200ppm (0.2gm/Ltr) at early vegetative stage.
To improve stress tolerance take spray of soluble root stimulant (RalliGold/Rizom)@100gm +Teeepol@60ml in 100Ltr water per acre at evening time after irrigation.
To control monocot weeds, use Glyphosate@300 g/acre and for dicot weeds, apply Oxyfluorfen@200 g/acre as pre-emergent treatment.
Plant gets established and get well settle in field. Irrigation frequency varies according to soil type and climate. Modern irrigation technique like drip irrigation is useful for rose cultivation. Avoid sprinkler irrigation as chances of infection of leaf disease increases.
Pest and their control:-
Caterpillar: If infestation of caterpillar is for effective control take spray of Methomyl along with sticker@1ml/Ltr.
Thrips, aphids and Leaf hopper: If infestation is observed, take spray of Methyl Demeton 25EC@2ml/Ltr of water or Carbofuran 3G@5gm/plant.
Disease and their control:-
Leaf Spot: If infestation of black spot is observed, to control take spray of Copper Oxychloride or Mancozeb@2.5gm/Ltr of water. Repeat the spray with interval of 8 days.
Powdery Mildew: If Infestation of powdery mildew is observed, to control take spray of Flusilazole@40ml+Teepol@50ml/100Ltr of water per acre with power sprayer.
Dieback: It is common disease and if not control properly it makes big loss. If infestation is observed, to control take spray of Chlorothalonil @ 2gm+Teepol @ 0.5ml/Ltr of water with power sprayer.
Economical yield from rose is obtained from second year onwards. Harvesting is done with sharp hand pruners, when colour of flower is fully developed and first one or two petals start to unfold but not fully open. Flowers along with prescribed length are cut with hand pruner. According to foreign market standard, for large flower, length of stem varies from 60-90cm and for small flower 40-50cm. Harvesting is to be done early in morning or late in afternoon.
After harvesting keep, roses in plastic buckets/container, filled with fresh water having disinfectant and preservative. Then keep flowers in pre-cooling chamber having temperature of 10oC for 12hours. After then flowers are graded on the basis of stem length, quality etc.
1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare