Ricebean is known as Vigna umbellata as botanical name. It is a perennial legume having an average height of 30-100 cm and can be grown up to 200 cm. The leaves are trifoliate having leaflets 6-9 cm long. The flowers are bright yellow in color which bears fruits. Fruits are cylindrical which bears the seed of 6-8 mm in size. It is found in Indo-China, Southern China, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh are major rice bean growing states in India.
It is grown in the variety of soil ranging from loamy to sandy loam soil having a good drainage system. It grows moderately on poor or light fertile soil. Avoid cultivation in the saline-alkaline soil, sandy or having waterlogged soils. Do not grow rice bean in light soils as it causes root-knot nematode problem to the crop.Popular
Popular varieties with yield:-
RBL 6: Developed in the year 2002. The variety is resistant to viral, fungal and bacterial diseases. The growth of this variety is fast. The pod formation, its development and its maturity all occur at the same time. Seeds of this variety are green in color and are resistant to insect pests. The variety matures within 125 days and gives 6 quintals/acre of average yield.
RBL 1: Developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Normal duration and high yielding crop. Gives average yield of 6qtl/acre.
RBL 35: Early maturing variety, developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.
RBL 50: High yielding variety, developed by PAU, Ludhiana. It is normal duration crop. Gives average yield of 6.5 qtl/acre.
Other state varieties:-
PRR2: Normal duration, high yielding variety developed by GBPUA&T. It give average yield of 6qtl/acre.
BRS 1: High yielding variety, developed by NBPGR, Bhowali. It is Suitable for hilly region. This variety seeds are having black color. It give average yield of 7 qtl/acre.
For rice bean plantation, it requires fine seedbed which is well prepared by the farmer. For good plant standing it requires prepared seedbed. Seed germination is done on fine seedbed and transplanting is done on prepared nursery beds.
Time of sowing:
As it is a kharif season crop, sowing is done mainly in the first – third week of July month.
Depending on plant growth habit, use row spacing of 30 cm and plant spacing of 10-12 cm.
Seed should be sown at depth of 3-4 cm.
Method of sowing:
For good yield, use seed rate of 10-12 kg per acre.
Nursery management and transplanting:-
Sow rice bean seeds on prepared beds having convenient length and width. Sow the seeds with the help of seed drill. For higher seed germination sowing is to be done under good water conditions.
Frequent weeding and hoeing are required to keep the field weed free. 1-2 hoeing are required after 30-50 days of sowing to control the weeds. Mulching is also an effective way to reduce soil temperature along with weed control.
In monsoon, there is no need for irrigation. But when monsoon doesn’t occur on time or drought occurs then apply irrigation 2-3 times in the post-monsoon period.
Leaf Stem Rotten
Diseases and their control:-
Leaf stem rotten: The disease damages the stem and as a result there is low seed yield and its quality also decreases.
Yellow leaves: The disease appears firstly as a red spot and then gradually it turns into reddish brown and then yellow. It will decrease the leaves yield.
Remove the infected portion as early as possible to treat this disease.
Blister beetle: The beetle damages the flower and blocks the pod formation.
Spraying of deltamethrin 2.8 EC @200ml or indoxacarb 14.5 SC @200ml or acephate 75 SP @800g/acre in 80-100 ltr of water is given to treat blister beetle pest.
Pest and their control:-
Small larva (hairy caterpillar): The caterpillar damages the leaves and green stems by feeding themselves.
Spraying of Ekalux 25 EC@200ml in 80-100 ltr of water or Nuvan 100 @200ml in 80-100l of water is used to treat hairy caterpillar.
Pod borer (Lepidoptera): It damages the pod by eating the young seeds or by moving on one pod to another.
Spraying of indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 200 ml or acephate 75 SP @ 800 g or spinosad 45 SC @ 60 ml in 100 litres of water per acre is given to treat pod borer.
Lizard: It causes cuts to the leaves and bunds of the plant.
Spraying of pesticide around the plant will help to remain lizard away from the plants. Spraying must be done in evening.
Larva: It destroys the leaves and pod of the plant by feeding themselves on the leaves and bore in the pod.
Harvesting is mainly done when 80% of pods turn brown in color. Harvesting is done mainly in the morning to avoid upsetting of the pod. The harvesting is done in small patches because the plants are interlinked with each other.
After harvesting, grains are sun dried. After drying they are packed in gunny bags or wooden boxes for long distance transport and for sale purpose.
1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare