Gram commonly known as chick pea or Bengal gram is the most important pulse crop of India. It is used for human consumption as well as for feeding to animals. Fresh green leaves are used as vegetable while straw of chickpea is an excellent fodder for cattle. The grains are also used as vegetable. India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Burma and Turkey are main gram growing countries. India ranks first in the world in respect of production and acreage followed by Pakistan. In India, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra and Punjab are major gram producing states.
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It can be grown on wide variety of soils. Sandy loam to clay loam is considered to be most suitable soil for gram cultivation. Soil having water logging problem are not suitable for cultivation. Saline alkaline soil are not suitable. pH in the range of 5.5 to 7 is ideal for sowing.
Popular varieties with yield :-
Gram 1137: It is recommended for hilly areas. It gives an average yield of 4.5qtl/acre. It is resistant to virus.
PBG 7 : Recommended for cultivation in whole Punjab. This variety is moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight and resistant to wilt and dry root rot. Grain size is medium and gives average yield of 8 qtl/acre. It gets mature in 159 days.
CSJ 515: Suitable under irrigated condition, seeds are small and are of brown colour weight 17 gm/100 seed. It is moderately resistant to dry root rot, and tolerant to ascochyta blight. Gets mature in 135 days. And gives average yield of 7 qtl/acre.
BG 1053: It is a Kabuli variety. It is early in flowering and matures in 155 days. Seeds are creamy white and bold in size. Gives Average yield of 8 qtl/acre. Suitable for cultivation for throughout state under irrigated condition.
L 550: Kabuli variety. Semi spreading and early flowering variety. Matures in 160 days. Seeds are of creamy white color. It gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.
L 551: It is kabuli variety. It is resistant to wilt disease. Ready to harvest in 135-140 days. It gives average yield of 6-8 qtl/acre.
GNG 1958: Cultivated under irrigated areas also suitable for normal sown irrigated condition. It has brown seed colour. Ready to harvest in 145 days. Gives average yield of 8-10 qtl/acre.
GNG 1969: Cultivated under irrigated areas also suitable for normal sown irrigated condition. It possess creamy beige seed colour. Ready to harvest in 146 days. Gives average yield of 9 qtl/acre.
GLK 28127: Suitable for cultivation under irrigated areas, seeds are of large size with light yellow or creamy colour with irregular owl head. Ready to harvest in 149 days. Gives average yield of 8 qtl/acre.
GPF2: The plants are tall with erect growth habit. It is highly resistive to Ascochyta blight and will complex. It gets matures in about 165 days. It gives average yield of 7.6 qtl/acre.
Aadhar (RSG-963): It is moderately resistant to Wilt, dry root rot, B.G.M and Collor rot, pod borer, & Nematodes. Ready to harvest in 125-130 days. Gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.
Anubhav (RSG 888): Suitable for cultivation in rainfed area. It is moderately resistant to wilt and root rot. Ready to harvest in 130-135 days. Gives average yield of 9 qtl/acre.
Pusa Chamatkar: Kabuli variety. It is tolerant to wilt. Ready to harvest in 140-150 days. It gives average yield of 7.5 qtl/acre.
PBG 5: Released in 2003. The variety matures in 165 days and it gives an average yield of 6.8qtl/acre. It has medium thick grains and dark brown in color. The variety is tolerant to wilt and root diseases.
PDG 4: Released in 2000. The variety matures in 7.8qtl/acre and it gives an average yield of 160 days. The variety is tolerant to damping off, root rot and wilt disease.
PDG 3: It gives an average yield of 7.2qtl/acre and the variety matures in 160 days.
L 552: Released in 2011. The variety matures in 157 days and it gives an average yield of 7.3qtl/acre. It has thick grains and the average weight of 100 grains is 33.6gm.
Other States Variety
C 235: Ready to harvest in 145-150 days. It is tolerant to stem rot and blight disease. Grains are of medium and yellowish brown color. Gives average yield of 8.4-10 qtl/acre.
G 24: Semi-spreading variety, suitable for rainfed conditions. Ready to harvest in 140-145 days. Gives average yield of 10-12 qtl/acre.
G 130: Medium duration variety. Gives average yield of 8-12 qtl/acre.
Pant G 114: Ready to harvest in 150 days. It is resistant to blight. It give average yield of 12-14 qtl/acre.
C 104: Kabuli gram varieties, Suitable for Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Gives average yield of 6-8 qtl/acre.
Pusa 209: Ready to harvest in 140-165 days. Gives average yield of 10-12 qtl/acre.
Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for chick pea, it required rough seed bed. If it is cultivated as mix crop the land should be plough to fine tilth. If chick pea crop is taken after a kharif fellow carry out one deep ploughing during the monsoon as it will help to conserved rain water. Before sowing plough the land only once. If soil appears to be deficient in moisture run a roller about a week before sowing.
Time of sowing
For rainfed conditions, complete sowing from Oct 10 to Oct 25. Under irrigated condition complete sowing from October 25 to November 10 of desi and kabuli varieties. Sowing on right time is necessary as early sowing leads to excessive vegetative growth, also crop get affected due to wilt while late sowing, crop make poor vegetative growth and inadequate root development.
Seed should be spaced 10 cm apart allowing 30-40 cm between rows.
The seed should be placed 10-12.5 cm deep.
Method of sowing
In north India, it is sown by pora method.
Use seed rate of 15-18 kg/acre for desi variety and 37 kg/acre for Kabuli variety. Increased seed rate of desi gram to 27 kg/acre in case sowing is to done in second fortnight of November and 36 kg/acre in case sowing is to be done in first fortnight of December.
Mix [email protected] kg/acre + decomposed cow dung@50 kg then cover it with jute bags for 24-72 hrs. Then spray this on moist soil before sowing to control soil borne disease. To prevent seeds from soil borne disease they should be treated with fungicide Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%WP(Saaf)@2 gm/kg of seed before sowing. In termite affected soil, treat seeds with Chlorpyrifos 20EC@10 ml/kg of seeds before sowing.
Inoculate seed with Mesorhizobium, it will increased productivity of gram and increased yield by 7%. For that first moisten seed with water then apply single packet of Mesorhizobium on seeds. After inoculation dry seeds in shed.
Use any one fungicides from below:
Fungicide name Quantity (Dosage per kg seed)
Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP
Thiram 3 gm
Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
Crops UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
Desi 13 50 As per soil test result
Kabuli 13 50 As per soil test result
Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)
Crops UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
Desi 6 8 As per soil test result
Kabuli 6 16 As per soil test result
For Desi varieties for irrigated as well as unirrigated areas, apply Nitrogen in form of Urea@13 kg/acre and Phosphorus in form of Super Phosphate@50 kg/acre at time of sowing. Whereas for Kabuli varieties, apply Urea@13 kg/acre and Super Phosphate @100 kg/acre at time of sowing. For efficient use of fertilizer apply all the fertilizers are drilled in furrows at a depth of 7-10 cm.
To keep check on weeds, take first hand weeding or with wheel hoe 25-30days after sowing and second if needed after 60 days of sowing. Simultaneously for effective weed control, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1Litre/200Litre water on third day after sowing for one acre land. It will help for controlling annual weeds. In case of less infestation, hand weeding or inter culture with the help of hoe is always better than herbicides because inter culture operations improve aeration in the soil.
Where irrigation facilities are available, give a pre-sowing irrigation. It will ensure proper germination and smooth crop growth. After then give second irrigation at time of pre-flowering and one at pod development stage. In case of early rain delay irrigation and give according to requirement. Heavy and excess irrigation enhanced vegetative growth and depresses grain yield. Also it doesn’t tolerate water stagnation in field so provide proper drainage in field.
Pest and their control:-
Termite: It feeds on root or near root zone of crop. Affected plant show symptom of drying up. It can be easily uprooted. It can affect at seedling stage and also near maturity.
To protect seeds from termite, treat seeds with Chlorpyriphos 20EC@10ml/kg of seeds. If infestation occur in standing crop, drench with Imidacloprid@4ml/10litre of water or Chlorpyriphos@5ml/10Ltr of water.
Cut worm: Caterpillar remain hide in soil at depth of 2-4 inch. It cut at base of plant, branches or stem. Eggs are laid down in soil. Larva is dark brown with red head.
Adopt crop rotation. Use only well decomposed cow dung. At early stage pick caterpillar by hand and then destroyed them. Avoid plantation of Tomato. Okra near gram field. In low infestation spray Quinalphos 25EC@400 ml/200-240 litres water per acre. In case of severe infestation Spray with Profenophos 50EC@600 ml/acre in 200-240 litres of water.
Gram pod borer: This is the most serious pest of chickpea and causes damage up to 75% reduction in yield. It feed on leaves causes skeletonization of leaves also feeds on flower and green pods. On pods they make circular holes and feed on grains.
Install Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera@5/acre. In case of low infestation, handpicked grown up larvae. At early stage use HNPV or Neem extract@50 gm/litre of water. Use of chemicals are necessary after ETL level. (ETL: 2 early instar larvae/plant or 5-8 eggs/plant).
Spray Deltamethrin 1%+Triazophos35%@25 ml/10 litre water when crop is at 50% flowering stage. Spray Emamectin Benzoate 5%G@3 gm/10 litre of water 15 days after first spray of Deltamethrin+Triazophos.
In case of severe infestation spray Emamectin Benzoate 5%SG@7-8 gm/15 litre or 20%WG Flubendiamide@8 gm/15 litre water.
Diseases and their control:-
Blight: Dark brown spot with dot like bodies developed on stem, branches, leaflet and pods. In case of excessive rain whole plant get severely affected with blight.
For cultivation use resistant varieties. Before sowing carryout seed treatment with fungicide. On incidence of disease spray with Indofil M-45 or Captan @360 gm/100 ltr of water per acre. If necessary repeat the spray at interval of 15 days.
Gray Mold: Small water soaked spots are observed on leaflets. Spots on infected leaves become dark brown. In severe infestation, brown necrotic spots appear on twigs, petioles, leaves and flowers of the plant on attaining full vegetative growth. The affected stem finally breaks and the plant dies.
Before sowing carry out seed treatment. If infestation is observed, spray crop with Carbendazim@2 gm/ltr of water.
Rust: This disease is more severe in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Small, round to oval, light or dark brown pustules are formed on the under surface of the leaves. In later stage, pustules get black and affected leaves get defoliate.
Use rust resistant varieties for cultivation. If symptoms are observed spray the crop with Mancozeb 75WP@2 gm/ltr of water. With interval of 10 days take two more sprays.
Wilt: This disease causes considerable loss in yield. In can affect at the seedling stage as well as in an advanced stage of plant growth. Initially affected plant show dropping of petioles and gives dull green color. Afterwards all leaves turn yellow and become straw colored.
Grow resistant varieties. In primary stage of wilt, to control mix 1 kg of Trichoderma in 200 kg well decomposed cow dung and keep it for 3 days, then apply it in wilt affected area. If wilt is observed in fields, spray 300 ml Propiconazol with 200 litre of water per acre.
When plant gets dry and leaves turn reddish brown and start shedding, plant is ready to harvest. Cut the plant with sickle. Sundry the harvested crop for five to six days. After proper drying, carry out threshing by beating the plants with sticks or by trampling under the feet of bullocks.
Grains of harvested crop must be well dried before storage. And take care to avoid the pulse beetle infestation in storage.
1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare