General information:-

Onion is most widely cultivated popular vegetable species. It is used for culinary purpose also it has several non-culinary use like it is used as Moth repellent because of its pungent juice, it is used to polish glass and copperware, onion concentrated water can be spray on plants to increased plants pest resistance. India ranks first in term of area and second in production after China.



Sowing Temperature
18°C - 20°C
Harvesting Temperature
25°C - 30°C


It can cultivate on various soil type such as sandy loam, clay loam silt loam and heavy soils. It gives best result when grown in deep loam and alluvial soils with good drainage, moisture holding capacity and sufficient organic matter. Loose and sandy soils are not suitable for cultivation as bulb produce in such soil are deformed with less keeping quality. pH of soil should be 6 to 7.
Popular varieties with yield:-

Agrifound Dark Red: It is ready for harvesting in 95-110 days. Gives average yield of 120 qtl/acre.

Other states variety

N 53: Ready for harvesting in 100-110 days. Bulbs are large in size with scarlet red color. Gives average yield of 60-80 qtl/acre.

Bhima Shakti

Bhima Shakti

Bhima Dark re

 Land Preparation:-

Give three to four deep ploughing and bring soil to fine tilth. Add well decomposed cow dung to increase organic content of soil. Then leveled soil and divide into small plots and channels.


Time of sowing
Optimum time for raising nursery is middle of June month. Seedlings are ready for transplantation 6-8 weeks after sowing. Complete transplantation in first week of August.


While transplanting, use spacing of 15 cm between rows and 7.5 cm between plants.

Sowing Depth
In nursery, sow seeds at depth of 1-2 cm.

Method of sowing

For sowing use transplanting method.


Seed Rate
Use seed rate of 3-4 kg/acre.

Seed Treatment
Seed treatment with Thiram@2 gm/kg of seed + Benomyl 50WP@1 gm/liter water effectively controls damping off and smut diseases. After chemical treatment, seed treatment with bio agent Trichoderma viride@2 gm/kg of seed is recommended, it help in reducing early seedling diseases and soil borne inoculum.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
90 125 35
Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)
40 20 20
Apply 20 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure or well decomposed cow dung 10 days before sowing. Apply Nitrogen@40 kg, Phophorus@20 kg and Potash@20 in form of Urea@90 kg, Single Super Phosphate@125 kg per acre and MOP@35 kg/acre. Apply whole quantity of Phosphorus, Potash and half dose of Nitrogen at time of transplanting. Apply remaining amount of nitrogen as top dressing, four weeks after transplantation.

WSF: 10-15 days after transplanting, sprayed 19:19:19 along with [email protected] to 3 gm/Ltr of water.

weed control:-

Initially onion seedlings grow slowly. So better to use chemical herbicides than hand weeding to avoid injury. To control weeds take spray of Pendimethalin(Stomp)@1 Ltr/200 Ltr water/acre within 72 hours of sowing. Apply oxyfluorfen@425 ml/200Ltr of water per acre as post emergence herbicide 7 days after planting. Two to three weeding are recommended for weed control. First hand weeding should be done one month after sowing and second hand weeding to be done one month after first hand weeding.


Depending upon climatic conditions and soil type decide irrigation amount and frequency. Apply first irrigation immediately after sowing then depending upon need apply irrigation with interval of 10-15days.

Plant protection:-

Maggots: Infestation observed in January-February Month. They feed on roots because browning of leaves. Base of plant become watery.

If infestation is observed, apply Carbaryl@4kg or Phorate@4kg to the soil and give light irrigation. Or Apply Chlorpyriphos @1.5Ltr/acre along with irrigation water or sandThrips: If not controlled properly can cause yield loss up to 50%. Mostly observed in dry weather. They suck sap from the foliage and results in curling of leaves, leaves become cup shaped or curved upward.

To check severity of thrips incidence, keep blue sticky traps @6-8 per acre. If infestation observed in field take spray of Fipronil (Reagent)@30ml/15Ltr water or Profenofos@10ml /10Ltr water by 8-10days interval.

Disease and their control:-

Purple blotch and stem phylium blight: In severe infestation may cause yield loss up to 70%. Deep purple lesions are observed on leaves. Yellow streaks get turn brown and extend along the blade.

Take spray of Propineb70%WP@350gm/acre/150Ltr of water, twice at 10days interval.


Harvesting at proper time is necessary. It depend upon variety, season, market price etc. 50% neck falls is sign indicating crop is ready for harvesting. Harvesting is done manually by uprooting bulbs. After harvesting they are kept in field for 2-3 days to remove excessive moisture from bulb.

Post harvest:-

After harvesting and proper drying, bulbs are sorted and graded according to size.


1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana

2.Department of Agriculture

3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi

4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research

5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare