Groundnut is a significant oilseed, ideal for cultivation in tropic regions of the country. Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume or "bean" family. It is considered to be local in South America. These are known by many other local names such as earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas, monkey nuts, pygmy nuts and peanuts. Despite its name and appearance, the peanut is not a nut, but rather a legume.
20°C - 30°C
25°C - 35°C
18°C - 25°C
Groundnut is raised in a sandy loam as well as well drained sandy clay loam soil. Deep well- drained soil with pH of 6.5 -7 as well as having great fertility are perfect for groundnut cultivation. Spanish as well as Runner varieties are beneficial for good quality soil compared to the Virginia forms. The lack of pods is often rich in heavier grounds. An excellent climatic condition for better germination of groundnut is 31° C. Heavy and stiff clays are unsuitable for groundnut cultivation as the pod development is hampered in these soils..
Popular variities with their yield:
TG37A: The variety is suitable for spring season. The shelling out turn is 65% and the average weight of 100 kernels are 42.5gm. The kernels are spherical in shape and pink in color. It gives an average yield of 12.3qtl/acre of pods.
PG-1: It is a spreading variety recommended for cultivation under rain fed conditions in Punjab. Ready to harvest in 130 days. It has a shelling percentage of 69. It yields about 6-8 quintals per acre. Seeds contain 49 per cent oil.
C-501 (Virginia group): It is a semi-spreading variety recommended for cultivation in sandy loam and loamy soils under irrigated conditions where spreading varieties do not grow well. It yields about 10 quintals per acre. It matures in about 125-130 days. It has 68 per cent shelling out turn and 48 percent oil content.
M548: Grown in sandy areas of the place with certainly dispersed rain fall of about 550 mm in July, mid-august as well as September or simply under deterrent irrigation. Ready to harvest in 123 days. Crude oil content obtained is 52.4%.
M-335: It is a spreading variety recommended for cultivation in Punjab. It matures in 125 days. It has a shelling percentage of 67. It yields about 8-10 quintals per acre. Seeds contain 49 percent oil. It is recommended for sowing under irrigated conditions in Punjab.
M-522: It is a spreading variety for sowing under irrigated conditions in Punjab. It matures in about 115 days. It has a shelling out turn of 68 percent. Seeds contain 50.7 percent oil. Pods are medium bold in size with mostly two kernels. Its yield potential is 9 quintals per acre.
M-37: Crop size is 25cm, a scattering kind variety with trailing divisions, foliage is big in dimensions, densely organized as well as deep greenish in shade. Pods are 1 to 2 seeded hardly ever 3-seeded. Shelling is 69%.
SG 99: This variety is grown in loamy sand to sandy places throughout summer months. Period of maturity is 124 days; principle stalk length is 66-68 cm; mature pods/plant is 22-24 in number; hundred kernel weights is 54; shelling out turn is 66%; oil content produced is 52.3. Average pod yield is about 10qtl/acre. Tolerant to bud necrosis disease.
SG-84: It is a bunch type variety suitable for growing in Punjab. It matures in 120-130 days. Seeds are of light brown color and contain 50 percent oil. It has a shelling out turn of 64 percent. Its yield potential is 10 quintals per acre.
Moongphali No. 13: It is a spreading variety with profuse lateral branches and vigorous growth. It is recommended for cultivation in sandy soils. It matures in 125-135 days. Its yield potential is 10-12 quintals per acre. It has 68 percent, shelling out turn. Seeds are of bold size and contain 49 percent oil.
M-145: A semi growing kind. Ideal for cultivation under irrigated as well as rain fed situations. Foliage is light greenish. Pods 1-4 seeded with purple tinted kernels. Shelling is 77%. Hundred kernels weight about 51gm. Proteins amount contains 29 .4%. It matures within 125 days.
M-197: It is a semi spreading variety recommended for cultivation in Punjab. It matures in 118-120 days. It has a shelling percentage of 68. It yields about 7-9 quintals per acre. Seeds contain 51 percent oil.
ICGS1: High yielding Spanish bunch type variety. Mature in 112 days. Resistant to bud necrosis disease. 70% shelling turn over and 51% oil content.
AL 882: It is a dwarf and early maturing variety. It gives an average yield of 5.4qtl/acre.
Other state varieties:
GG 21: This variety is has bold kernel size and having attractive tan color. It is having higher pod yield. It is having average kernel yield of 490 kg/acre.
GG 8: It give average yield of 690kg/acre which is 7-15%higher than TAG 24 and JL 24.
After harvesting of previous crop, plough the land twice and pulverised soil to obtained good tilth of soil. Give a third ploughing if necessary for rainfed crop, in the end of June or early July. Use harrow or tillers for cultivation purpose. When land is heavily infested with perennial weeds, very deep ploughing is needed. For irrigated crop, make beds of convenient size depending upon topography. Nature of irrigation source etc. Application of 5-7 ton/acre of chicken manure or 10 ton/acre of farm yard manure or well decomposed cow dung should be done 1 month before sowing. It helps to improve soil structure along with good plant growth.
Time of sowing
Sow the rainfed crop with the advent of monsoon in the last week of June or in the Ist week of July. Complete sowing as early as possible as delay sowing results in reduction in yield. Where irrigation facility is available sow kharif groundnut from April end to May end.
Spacing to be adopted is depends upon type of variety. i.e., for semi spreading variety (M 522) use spacing of 30cm between the rows and 22.5 cm between plants and for bunchy type varieties (SG 99, SG84) use spacing of 30x15 cm.
Healthy and well developed pods should be hand shelled with a suitable groundnut sheer about fornight before sowing. Pods are sown with help of seed drill at depth of 8-10 cm at a seed rate of 38-40 kg/acre.
Method of sowing
seeds are sown with help of seed drill.
ICRISAT method: Polythene mulching has been attributed as one of the major improved cultivation practices for enhanced productivity of groundnut in China. When grown under polythene mulch system, groundnut matures about 10 days earlier than under non-mulched condition. Polythene mulching increases the soil temperature by retaining the heat from the sun. The increased accumulated temperature shortens the crop period. During the hot season it also protects the soil from direct sunlight.
In this technology, Broad beds and furrows are used for groundnut cultivation. Environment of Broad beds and furrows system is favourable for the development of groundnut pods, by doing little modification in the size, beds are formed along with polyethylene film mulched. Make beds of 60 cm width and leave 15 cm on the either side for the furrows. In a plot size of 4.5 m x 6.0 m, five beds can be made. After the formation of the bed and fertilizer application, spread black polythene sheet (90 cm width) over the soil surface. Polyethylene sheet of Seven micron @20kg/acre is required. Holes can be made at required spacing of 30 x10 cm before spreading of the sheets. The seed requirement is similar to normal gro
For sowing use seed rate of 38-40kg/acre.
Use healthy and well developed kernels for sowing. Discard very small, shrivelled and diseased kernels. Carry out seed treatment with Thiram@5gm or Captan@2-3 gm/kg or Mancozeb@4g/kg or Carboxin or Carbendazim@2gm/kg of the kernels to avoid infestation from ground borne disease. After chemical treatment, treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride@4g/kg seed or Pseudomonas fluorescens@10gm/kg seed. Seed treatment will protect the young seedlings from root-rot and collar rot infection.
Fungicide/Insecticide name Quantity (Dosage per kg seed)
Chlorpyriphos 20EC 12.5ml
Groundnut–Late Kharif Fodder/Gobhi sarson+Toria /Potato/Peas/Toria/Rabi crops rotation can be taken up successfully where irrigation facilities exist. Avoid sowing groundnut in the same field year after year, as this practice results in heavy build- up of soil-borne diseases.
Fertilizers Requirement (kg/acre)
UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH GYPSUM
13 50 17 50
Nutrient Value (kg/acre)
NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
6 8 10
Apply fertilizer dose depending upon Soil testing. Due to this exact amount of fertilizer needed for soil is given and thus unnecessary loss of fertilizer is avoided. Apply Urea@13kg/acre, SSP@50kg/acre and depending upon soil testing if soil show deficiencies of potash then apply 10kg/acre of MoP. Also apply Gypsum@50kg/acre. Broadcast gypsum and drill all fertilizers at time of sowing. Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods.
The leaves of upper portion of crop get smaller and it gives light yellow appearance, this is due to Zinc deficiency. Crop growth gets stunted and the kernels are shrivelled in severe condition. Apply zinc sulphate heptahydrate@25kg or zinc sulphate monohydrate@16kg per acre. This dose will be sufficient for 2 to 3 years.
Water soluable Fertilizer:
To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is important. This can be prepared by soaking [email protected] kg, Ammonium sulphate@1kg and Borax@500 gm in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 16 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 234 lit of water so as to made up to 200 litre to spray for one acre. Planofix@4ml/15 ltr can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing.
Weed control during first 45 days of growth period is essential for good yield. The most critical period is 3-6 weeks after sowing of crop. The average yield loss due to weed is about 30% whereas under poor management yield loss by weed may be 60%. Therefore carryout mechanical or chemical weed control during initial stage of crop growth.
Give two hoeing after the first three weeks of sowing and then after second three weeks of sowing. No interculture would be done after the pegs have commmenced going underground. Apply Fluchoralin @ 600 ml per acre or Pendimethalin @ 1 ltr per acre as pre-emergence area followed by hand weeding once 36-40 days after planting.
Accomplish earthing up during second hand weeding/late hand weeding (in herbicide application). It is an important operation in groundnut. Earthing up is to be done within 40-45 days after sowing as it helps for the penetration of pegs in the soil and also facilitates for increased pod development.
Irrigation for two or three time depending upon seasonal rainfall is necessary for good crop growth. Apply first irrigation at flowering stage. If the Kharif crop is caught in a long spell of draught, especially at the pod formation stage, supplemental irrigation is given, if water is available (In pod development stage, 2 - 3 irrigations are given depending on the soil type). Another irrigation a few days before the harvest may be given for full recovery for pods from soil.
Pest and their control:
Aphid: Its infestation is high when rainfall is low. These are black bodied tiny insects suck the sap making the plants stunted and yellow. They secrete a sticky fluid (honeydew) on the plant, which is turned black by a fungus.
It can be controlled by spraying of rogor @ 300ml/acre or Imidacloprid 17.8 % SL@ 80 ml/acre or Methyl demeton 25% EC @ 300 ml/acre as soon as the symptoms are seen.
White grub: The adult beetles emerge from the soil during June-July with the first showers of rain. They congregate on the nearby trees such as ber, guava, rukmanjani, grapevines, almonds etc. and feed on their leaves during night. The eggs are laid in the soil and the larvae (grubs) hatching from them eat away the rootlets or root hairs of the groundnut plants.
For effective management of white grub plough the field twice during May-June. It exposes the beetles resting in the soil. Do not delay crop sowing. Before sowing treat the seed with Chlorpyriphos 20E [email protected] ml per kg kernels. For beetle control, spray with carbaryl @900 gm/100 Ltr of water. The spray should be repeated after every rainfall till the middle of July. Apply Phorate @ 4 kg or carbofuran @ 13 kg per acre in the soil at or before sowing.
Hairy caterpillar: The caterpillars occur in masses and defoliate the crop, reducing the yield. Larvae are reddish brown with black band and reddish hairs on all over body.
Set up 3-4 light traps immediately after receipts of rains. Collect and destroy egg masses in the cropped area. Avoid migration of larvae by digging a trench 30 cm deep and 25 cm wide with perpendicular sides around the infested fields. Distribute small balls of poison bait in the field during evening hours. To prepare poison bait, mix 10 kg of rice bran, 1 kg jaggery and one litre Quinalphos. To control young larvae, do dusting of Carbaryl or Quinalphos at 300 ml/acre. To control grown up caterpillar, spray with 200 ml of Dichlorvos 100 EC @200 Ltr water/acre.
Groundnut leaf miner: Young larvae boar into the leaflets and form small purple blotch on the leaf. Later stages larvae web the leaflets together and feed on them, remaining within the folds. Severely attacked field gives "burnt" appearance. Set up light traps @ 5/acre. Apply Dimethoate 30EC@300 ml/acre or Malathion 50 EC @400ml/acre or Methyl demeton 25% EC@ 200 ml/acre.
Termites: Termites penetrate and hollow out the tap root and stem thus kill the plant. Bore holes into pods and damage the seed. Due to infestation of termite wilting of plant is observed.
Use well decomposed cow dung. Do not delay harvesting of crop. Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos @ 6.5ml /kg of seed may reduce termite damage. Do Dusting of Chlorpyriphos@2 ltr/acre in soil before sowing in endemic areas.
Pod borer: The holes are observed in young plant that is plugged with excreta. Nymph is of white in early stages and later turns brown.
Apply Malathion 5D@10 kg/acre or Carbofuran 3%CG @13 kg/acre, on soil at 40 days prior to sowing on infected area.
Disease and their control:
Tikka or Cercospora Leaf-spot: Necrotic circular spot surrounded by a light-yellow ring on the upper side of the leaves.To control the disease take care from starting, from selection of seeds. Select healthy and unblemished kernels. Before sowing do seed treatment with Thiram (75%)@5 gm or Indofil M-45 (75%)@3 gm/kg of kernels. Spray the crop with Wettable sulphur 50 WP@ 500-750 gm/200-300 Litres of water per acre. Give 3 or 4 sprays at fortnight intervals, starting from the first week of August. Alternatively, spray the irrigated crop with Carbendazim(Bavistin/Derosal/Agrozim 50 WP@500gm/200 Ltr of water per acre. Give three sprays at fortnight intervals, starting when the crop is 40 days old.
Collar-rot and Seed rot: These diseases are caused by Aspergillus niger. It causes rooting of the hypocotyl region, wilting and death of the seedlings. To control seed treatment is necessary. Treat the seed with Thiram or Captan 3 gm/kg of seed.
Alternaria leaf disease: Characterized by blighting of apical portions of leaflets which turn light to dark brown color. In the later stages of infection, blighted leaves curl inward and become brittle. Lesions produced by A. alternata are small, chlorotic, water soaked, that spread over the surface of the leaf.
If infestation is observed, do foliar application of Mancozeb@3 gm/ Ltr or Copper oxychloride@3 gm/acre or Carbendazim@ 3 gm/ Ltr of water.
Rust: Pustules appear first on the lower surface of leaf. They may be formed on all aerial plant parts apart from flower and pegs. Severely infected leaves turn necrotic and desiccate but are attached to the plant.
After infestation is observed, take spray of Mancozeb@400 gm/acre or Chlorothalonil@400 gm/acre or Wettable sulphur@ 1000 gm/acre. If necessary take second spray with interval of 15 days.
Deficiency and their remedy:
DEFICIENCY AND THEIR REMEDY
Leaves are not growing properly and grows in irregular shape. Mature leaves show pale yellow appearance and veins remain green.
To overcome deficiency apply Muriate of Potash@16-20kg/acre.
Mostly observed in light soils or alkaline soils. Plants not grow properly. Leaves show curling up.
To overcome this deficiency apply Gypsum@200kg/acre at peg formation stage.
Entire leaf get white or chlorotic.
If deficiency is observed, spray crop with ferrous sulphate@5gm + citric acid@1gm/Ltr of water with one week interval. Continue spraying till deficiency get disappeared.
Affected plant shows leaves in cluster form, leaves growth get stunted and appear small.
Take spray of Zinc sulphate@2gm/Litre of water. Spray for two-three times with 7 days interval.
Young Plant growth get stunted and appeared smaller in size. Also leaves are small and give yellowish appearance. Maturity of plant get delayed.
As a preventive measure apply Gypsum@200kg/acre at planting and pegging stage.
Kharif sown crop is get ready to harvest in month of November. When plant show uniform yellowing of crop along with shedding of older leaves. Crop sown during April end - May end is ready for harvesting after the monsoons are over towards end of August and September. For efficient harvesting of crop, adequate moisture should be present in soil and crop should not be overripe. The tractor- mounted groundnut-digger shaker developed at the Punjab Agricultural University may be used for quick harvesting. Harvested plants are stacked for a few days for drying and stripped afterwards. After curing, collect the crop at one place and give 2-3 shakings and beatings daily for 2 to 3 days with a toothed rake or trangli to separate pods and leaves from the stalk. Collect the pods and leaves into a heap and winnow. Dried pods in sun for 4 or 5 days before storage.
On cloudy days removed pods and then immediately place them in an air drier@27-38 degree centigrade for 2 days or until pods dry to constant mass (6-8%).
After cleaning and grading, store pods in gunny bags and stack them up to 10 bags high in separated stocks so that air freely circulate among them. The bags should be piled on wooden plank to avoid damage due to dampness.
Processed Peanuts: Apart from raw edible peanuts, India is also in a position to supply blanched peanuts, roasted salted peanuts and dry roasted peanuts and a variety of peanut based products.
1.Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana
2.Department of Agriculture
3.Indian Agricultural Research Instittute, New Delhi
4.Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
5.Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare