Introduction is an annual herb and belongs to the family of Apiaceous and coriander is indispensable spice in the kitchen. It gives good flavor to dish, because of this property coriander seed (Dhaniya) and fresh leaves are common used in every kitchen to prepare testy dishes. The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many Indian foods (Such as curries, churneys and salads). Coriander leaves constitute one of the richest source of Vitamin ‘C’. All parts of the coriander plant are eatable, but the fresh coriander leaves and the dried seeds (Dhaniya) are parts most traditionally used in cooking. Coriander leaves also called as Coriandrum sativums, Chinese parsley, cilantro, Dhania patta.
Health benefits of Coriander: – Some of the coriander health benefits are mentioned below.
• Coriander helps in Skin related disorders.
• Coriander helps in reducing cough.
• Coriander helps in reducing blood pressure.
• Coriander helps in reducing Diarrhea.
• Coriander helps in reducing the cholesterol levels in the blood.
Local names of coriander in India: – Kothimbir/Dhane (Marathi), Dhaniya/Dhaniya patta/Dhania patta/ Hara patta (Hindi), Malliyila (Malayalam), Kothimeera/dhaniyaly (Telugu), Kottamalli (Tamil), Kottambari Soppu (Kannada), Dhonay Paatha (Bengali), Kothmiri, Dhana (Gujarati), Hara Patta (Punjabi).
Commercial varieties in coriander cultivation in India: – Below are some the coriander varieties cultivated in India.
Co-1: – Dual purpose, 110 days, Tolerant to grain mould. Seed yield of 2000 kg/ha (irrigated cultivation) and 750-800 kg/ha (rainfed cultivation).
Co-2: – High yielding dual purpose variety, very tolerant to drought 90 to 100 days, yield of 600 to 700 kg/ha can expected.
Co-3: – Dual purpose variety, less susceptible to grain moulds and wilts. Duration is 3 months, yield about 650 to 700 kg/ha can be expected.
CS-2: – Medium to tall with more branching and bushy type with 83cm height yield about 1400 kg/ha can be expected.
CS-287: – Small, blood grain, highly tolerant to will and grain mould, suits for rain fed taracts.
Karan: – Small, blood grain, highly tolerant to wilt and stem gall disease.
Agro-climatic conditions for coriander cultivation: – Coriander grows well in dry and cool weather. It does not tolerate any frost. Coriander performs well at a temperature range of 20 to 30ᵒ C.
Best season to grow coriander: – June to July & October to November.
Soil requirement in Coriander cultivation: – Coriander grows well in drained loamy soils. The optimum PH range 6 to 8 in soil is best suited for its cultivation.
Seed rate in Coriander cultivation: – Whole Coriander seeds will not germinate and hence the seeds are split open into halve before sowing. Seed rate is about 20 to 25 kg/ha in rain fed crop condition and 10 to 27 kg/ha in irrigated crop condition.
Seed Treatment in Coriander cultivation: – Soak the seeds in water for 12 hours for better germination. Treat the coriander seeds with Azospirillum & 1.5 kg/ha for better crop establishment and to control wilt disease, trichoderma viride @ 50 kg/ha.
Pre sowing seed hardening treatment with potassium Dehydrogen Phosphate @ 10 grams/liter water for 16 hours should be done for rain fed crop condition.
Field preparation and sowing in coriander cultivation: –
• Start preparing the main field to a fine tilth. (3. To 4 plunghings may be required).
• Add farm Yard Manure to the soil @ 10 tons/ha before last ploughing.
• Should form channels and beds for irrigated crop.
• Should sow the split coriander seeds @ a spacing of 20 cm X 15 cm.
• Should spray pre-emergence herbicide called Fluchloralin 700 ml by mixing with 500 liter of water per ha.
• The seeds start germinating in about 1 week – 2 weeks.
Manuring in coriander cultivation: – Top dressing should be done at 10 kg N/ha 1 month after sowing for the irrigation the irrigated crop only. Should consider to add Farm Yard Manure (FMY) 10 tons/ha; 40 kg P, 10 kg N and 20 kg K for rain fed and irrigated crops.
Irrigation in coriander cultivation: – 1st irrigation should be given immediately after sowing and the second on the third day and subsequent, irrigation at 6 to 10 days interval. In rainy season, crop hardly requires and irrigation.
Cultivation care in coriander cultivation: – Should apply pre-emergence spray of herbicide flucloralin 700 ml in 500 liter of water/ha. Thinning should be carried out after 1 month of sowing. Subsequent weeding should be done as and when needed. CCC @ 250ppm should be sprayed 30 days after sowing for inducing drought tolerance in rain fed crops.
Pests and disease in coriander cultivation: – Following are the Pests and diseases found in coriander cultivation.
Powdery mildew: – Seed should be treated with Pseudomonas fluoresces (Pf 1) @ 10 grams/kg and foliar spray of Pf1 2grams/liter of Dinocap 250 ml/ha or spray wet table sulphur 1 kg/ha at the time of initial showing of the disease and second spray @ 10 days interval. Should spray Neem seed kernel extracts 5% thrice (1st spray immediately after the showing of disease, second and third at 10 days interval).
Wilt: – To control this, seed should be treated with Pseudomona flourescens @ 10 grams/kg followed by soil application of Pf1 @ 5 kg/ha.
Grain mould: – Grain mould can be controlled by spraying Carbendazim 0.1% which is 500 grams/ha 3 weeks after coriander grains set.
Harvesting of coriander: – The coriander plants are pulled just when the fruits are in fully ripe stage but green and start drying. The plants should be dried and thrashed with small sticks. Seeds should be cleaned. For fresh coriander leaf, pull out the plants when they are 30 to 35 days old.