Introduction about Brinjal: – Brinjal is farming information Guide: – Brinjal or Eggplant is an important crop of sub tropics and tropics. The name brinjal is popular in Indian subcontinents and is derived from Arabic and Sanskrit whereas the name eggplant has been derived from the shape of the fruit of some varieties, which are white and resemble in shape to chicken eggs. It is also called aubergine (French word) in Europe. The brinjal is of much importance in the warm areas of Far East, being grown extensively in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China and the Philippines. It is also popular in Egypt, France, Italy and United States. In India, it is one of the most common, popular and principal vegetable crops grown throughout the country except higher altitudes. It is a versatile crop adapted to different agro-climatic regions and can be grown throughout the year. It is a perennial but commercially as an annual crop. A number of cultivars are grown in India, consumer preference being dependent upon fruit color, size and shape.
Brinjal Varieties in India: – Below is the main brinjal hybrid varieties cultivated in India.
Pusa Purple Long: – It is and early maturing and long fruited type variety. Fruits are glossy, light purple in color, 25-30 cm long, smooth and tender. Crop is ready for picking in 100 to 110 days. Suitable for spring and autumn plantings, average yield is 27.5 t/ha. It is moderately tolerant to shoot borer and little leaf disease.
Pusa Purple Cluster: – It is an early maturing and long fruited type variety. Fruits are small, dark purple in color and borne in clusters. The crop is ready for picking in 75 days after transplanting. Variety is resistant to little leaf disease under natural conditions.
Pusa Kranti: – This variety has a dwarf and spreading growth habit. Fruits are oblong and stocky than slender with attractive dark purple color. Good for both spring and autumn plantings under North Indian conditions. Crop matures in 130-150 days. Average yield is 14-16 t/ha.
Pusa Barsati: – This variety has a dwarf and erect growth habit devoid of thorns. Fruits are medium, long and purple with average yield 35.5 t/ha.
Manjri Gota: – This variety has dwarf and spreading growth habit. The fruits are medium-large, round and purple colored with white stripes. Upon maturity, the fruits attain a golden yellow color. Average yield is 15-20 t/ha.
Vaishali: – The variety has a dwarf and spreading type of growth habit. Fruits are oval in shape purple in color with white stripes. The stalks of the fruits bear spines. Crop is ready for first picking within 60 days after transplanting. Average yield is 30 t/ha.
Arka Navneet: – This brinjal variety is high yielding hybrid. Fruits are large oval to oblong with deep purple shining skin with each fruit 450g in weight. Purple flower with solitary bearing habit. Free from bitter principles with very good cooking qualities. Crop is ready for picking in 150-160 days. Average yield is 65-70 t/ha.
Arka Sheel: – This type brinjal are medium long with deep shining purple skin. Calyx flesh and green purple flower with solitary bearing habit. Crop is ready for picking in 150-160 days. Average yield is 38 t/ha.
Arka Kusmukar: – This binjal type has spreading plant habit with green stem & green leaves. Flowers white green small fruits borne in cluster. Soft texture with good cooking quality. Crop is ready for picking in 140-150 days. Average yield is 40 t/ha.
Arka Nidhi (BWR-12): – This is high yielding brinjal variety with resistant variety. Fruits tender, free from bitter principles with seed maturity. Crop is ready for picking in 150 days. Average yield is 45 t/ha.
Pusa Ankur: – These types of brinjal are oval-round, small-sized (60-80g), bark purple, attractive fruits. Fruits are small, oval-round, bark purple, glossy and very attractive, weighing each 60-80g. It is an early bearing and becomes ready for first picking 45 days after transplanting. Its fruits do not lose color and tenderness even on delayed pickings.
Climatic requirement for Brinjal farming: – The brinjal is warm season crop, therefore susceptible frost. Low temperature during the cool season causes deformation of vegetables. A long and warm growing season is desirable for successful brinjal farming. Cool nights and short summers are not suitable for favorable for optimum growth and yield. The brinjal seed germinate well @ 25C.
Soil requirement of Brinjal farming: – The brinjal plants can be grown in all types of soil varying from light sandy to heavy clay. Well drained soil rich in organic matter with ph of 6.5-7.5 light soils are good for an early yield, while clay-loam and still-loam are well suited for higher yield.]
Soil Preparation for Brinjal farming: – Since the crop remain in the field for a number of months. The soil should be thoroughly prepared by ploughing 4 to 5 times before transplanting the seedlings. Bulky organic manures like well rotten crowding or compost should be incorporated evenly on the soil. Thoroughly prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM. Irrigation the furrows and transplant 30-35 days old seedling at 60 cm apart on the ridges.
Season of sowing for Brinjal farming: – December-January and May-June.
Nursery bed preparation for brinjal farming: – Apply FYM 10kg, neem cake 1kg, VAM 50g, enriched super phosphate 100 g and furadon 10g per square meter before sowing; area required for raising seedling for planting 1.0 ha is 100 sq.m.
Seed rate in Brinjal Farming: – Varieties: 400 grams/ha, Hybrids: 200 grams/ha.
Seed treatment in Brinjal farming: – Treat the brinjal seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas flurescens @ 10 g/kg of seed. Treat the seed with Azospirillum @ 40g/400g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive. Irrigate with rose can. In raised nursery beds, show the seeds in lines at 10cm apart and cover with sand. Transplant the seedlings 30-35 days after sowing at 60cm apart in the ridges.
Transplanting in Brinjal farming: – The seedlings are ready in 4-5 weeks for transplanting, when they attained a height of 12-15 cm with 3 to 4 leaves. Harden the seedlings by withholding irrigation. Uproot the seedlings carefully without injury to the roots. Transplanting should be done during evening hours followed by irrigation. Firmly press the soil around the seedlings. Spacing depends upon the fertility status of soil around the seedlings; spacing depends upon the fertility status of soil, type of verities and suitability of the season. In general 60 X 60 cm spacing is kept for non-spreading type verities and 75-90 X 60-75 cm for spreading type verities.
Irrigation/Water supply in Brinjal farming: – Water the field as per the need of crop. Timely irrigation is quite essential for good growth, flowering, fruit setting and development of fruits. Higher yield may be obtained at optimum moisture level and soil fertility conditions. In plains irrigation should be applied every third to fourth day during hot weather and every 7 to 12 days during winter. Irrigation is given before top dressing of there is no rain. The brinjal field should be regularly irrigated to keep the soil moist during frosty days.