Introduction about Jasmine farming: – Jasmine is one of the oldest and best fragrant flowers grown. The jasmine flower is used for many purpose i.e, in bouquet, decorating hair of women, making garlands, religious offering. Jasmine also used in production of perfumes and cosmetics. More than 50 types of jasmine species are grown in India, but only three species are used for commercial farming.
- Jasmine sambac (Madurai Malli/Gundumalli).
- Grandiflorum (Jathimalli/Pitchi).
- Auriculatum (Mulla).
The first one and last species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers where as the middle type is cultivated for concrete extraction.
Tamil Nadu holds no.1 position in producing of jasmine in India. The flowers produced in Tamil Nadu exported to the other countries like Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, and Middle East countries. The major districts in Tamil Nadu that produces jasmine are Salem, Trichy, Tirunelveli, Dindigul, Madurai, Virudhunagar. Since the jasmine crop requires lots of manpower foe harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are interest to cultivate the crop. Jasmine farming it is an ideal crop for small farmers where the land is in small extent (less than 2 acres).
Commercial verities of Jasmine cultivated in India: – The following are major varieties of jasmine commercial crops.
- Gundumalli (Jasminum sambac).
- Co-1 and Co-2 (Grandiflorum).
- Co-1 and Co-2 (Auriculatum).
Climatic condition required for Jasmine farming: – Jasmine thrives very well in well drained, sandy loam soils which are rich in organic matter. The ideal agro climatic conditions for successful jasmine cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days with humid conditions.
Suitable soil for Jasmine farming: – Jasmine can be grown in wide range of soils i.e., from clay soils to sandy loam soils with good drainage. For better production make sure the soil is rich by adding organic compost or any Farm Yard Manure (FMY).
Soil preparation and Planting in Jasmine farming: – To control or remove the weeds, one or two initial sloughing are required in the main field, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 30cm by 30cm. Add 10 to 12 kg of FYM to each pit before filling the pits. Best season for jasmine plantation is June-November at a spacing of 1.5m X 1.5m is ideal.
Manure and Fertilizers in Jasmine farming: – It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 to 12 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and 120g each of Phosphorus and Potassium and 60 g of Nitrogen. This should be applied in two split doses once after annual pruning and again during the June to July season.
Water supply in Jasmine farming: – First irrigation should be given immediately after plantation of jasmine and next water supply should be given at an interval of 5 to 10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type. If it is rainy season irrigation may not be required but soil drainage is very important.
Inter cultural operations and pruning in Jasmine farming: – In jasmine cultivation weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and buds should be carried out as part of intercultural operations. The first weeding should be done 3 to 4 weeks after planting the jasmine and subsequent weeding should be once in 2 to 3 months. Training is basically done for giving the desired shape to the jasmine plant where as, pruning is done to achieve the desired crop production. Usually, water supply is with held prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches of jasmine. It is preferred to prune the plants during the last week of November to get better yield and quality of flowers.
Pests and Diseases in Jasmine farming: – Main pests in jasmine plantation are blossom midge, bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, application of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g/l is recommended. Nematode and root rot are the major diseases in jasmine farming. To control the Nematode-10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone should be applied and for Root rot: Soil drench should be done around plant with copper oxy chloride @ 205g/l.
Time of flowering and Harvesting of Jasmine: – Jasmine starts flowering after 6 months of planting. Harvesting to be carried out by picking fully developed unopened flower buds in the early morning.